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Current Issue  
2014 Vol. 28, No. 3
Published: 2014-06-30

Simulation and Projection of the Western Pacific Subtropical High in CMIP5 Models
LIU Yunyun,LI Weijing,ZUO Jinqing,HU Zeng-Zhen
2014, 28(3): 327-340 [Abstract]( 1173 ) HTML PDF (3419 KB)  ( 1164
Abstract:This work examined the performance of 26 coupled climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in the simulation of the present-day temporal variability and spatial pattern of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). The results show that most models are able to capture the spatial distribution and variability of the 500-hPa geopotential height and zonal wind fields in the western subtropical Pacific, but with underestimated mean intensity of the WPSH. The underestimation may be associated with the cold bias of sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian and western Pacific oceans in the models. To eliminate the impact of the climatology biases, the climatology of these models is replaced by that of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis in the verification, and the models reproduce the WPSH's enhancement and westward extension after the late 1970s. According to assessment of the simulated WPSH indices, it is found that some models (CNRM-CM5, FGOALS-g2, FIO-ESM, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-P) are better than others in simulating WPSH. Then, the ensemble mean of these better models is used to project the future changes of WPSH under three representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP4.5, and RCP2.6). The WPSH enlarges, strengthens, and extends westward under all the scenarios, with the largest linear growth trend projected in RCP8.5, smallest in RCP2.6, and in between in RCP4.5; while the ridge line of WPSH shows no obvious long-term trend. These results may have implications for the attribution and prediction of climate variations and changes in East Asia.
Numerical Study of the Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Spring Persistent Rain over Eastern China
DENG Jiechun,XU Haiming,MA Hongyun,JIANG Zhihong
2014, 28(3): 341-353 [Abstract]( 1022 ) HTML PDF (941 KB)  ( 533
Abstract:The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the spring persistent rain (SPR) over eastern China is investigated by using a high-resolution Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1). The results show that the SPR starts later due to anthropogenic aerosols, with a shortened duration and reduced rainfall amount. A reduction in air temperature over the low latitudes in East Asia is linked to anthropogenic aerosols; so is a weakened southwesterly on the north side of the subtropical high. Meanwhile, air temperature increases significantly over the high latitudes. This north-south asymmetrical thermal effect acts to reduce the meridional temperature gradient, weakening the upper-level westerly jet over East Asia and the vertical motion over southeastern China. As a result, the SPR is reduced and has a much shorter duration. The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols also plays an important role in changing the SPR. Cloud droplet number concentration increases due to anthropogenic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei, leading to a reduction in cloud effective radius over eastern China and a reduced precipitation efficiency there.
An Overview of the Studies on Black Carbon and Mineral Dust Deposition in Snow and Ice Cores in East Asia
WANG Xin,XU Baiqing,MING Jing
2014, 28(3): 354-370 [Abstract]( 733 ) HTML PDF (743 KB)  ( 903
Abstract:Black carbon (BC) is the most effective insoluble light-absorbing particulate (ILAP), which can strongly absorb solar radiation at visible wavelengths. Once BC is deposited in snow via dry or wet process, even a small amount of BC could significantly decrease snow albedo, enhance absorption of solar radiation, accelerate snow melting, and cause climate feedback. BC is considered the second most important component next to CO2 in terms of global warming. Similarly, mineral dust (MD) is another type of ILAP. So far, little attention has been paid to quantitative measurements of BC and MD deposition on snow surface in the midlatitudes of East Asia, especially over northern China. In this paper, we focus on reviewing several experiments performed for collecting and measuring scavenging BC and MD in the high Asian glaciers over the mountain range (such as the Himalayas) and in seasonal snow over northern China. Results from the surveyed literature indicate that the absorption of ILAP in seasonal snow is dominated by MD in the Qilian Mountains and by local soil dust in the Inner Mongolian region close to dust sources. The detection of BC in snow and ice cores using modern techniques has a large bias and uncertainty when the snow sample is mixed with MD. Evidence also indicates that the reduction of snow albedo by BC and MD perturbations can significantly increase the net surface solar radiation, cause surface air temperature to rise, reduce snow accumulation, and accelerate snow melting.
Spatiotemporal Variations of Cloud Amount over the Yangtze River Delta, China
ZHAO Wenjing,ZHANG Ning,SUN Jianning
2014, 28(3): 371-380 [Abstract]( 672 ) HTML PDF (1714 KB)  ( 572
Abstract:Based on the NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) monthly mean cloud amount data, variations of annual and seasonal mean cloud amount over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China were examined for the period 1982-2006 by using a linear regression analysis. Both total and high-level cloud amounts peak in June and reach minimum in December, mid-level clouds have a peak during winter months and reach a minimum in summer, and low-level clouds vary weakly throughout the year with a weak maximum from August to October. For the annual mean cloud amount, a slightly decreasing tendency (-0.6% sky cover per decade) of total cloud amount is observed during the studying period, which is mainly due to the reduction of annual mean high-level cloud amount (-2.2% sky cover per decade). Mid-level clouds occur least (approximately 15% sky cover) and remain invariant, while the low-level cloud amount shows a significant increase during spring (1.5% sky cover per decade) and summer (3.0% sky cover per decade). Further analysis has revealed that the increased low-level clouds during the summer season are mainly impacted by the local environment. For example, compared to the low-level cloud amounts over the adjacent rural areas (e.g., cropland, large water body, and mountain areas covered by forest), those over and around urban agglomerations rise more dramatically.
Characteristics of the Regional Meteorological Drought Events in Southwest China During 1960-2010
LI Yunjie,REN Fumin,LI Yiping,WANG Pengling,YAN Hongming
2014, 28(3): 381-392 [Abstract]( 758 ) HTML PDF (2915 KB)  ( 812
Abstract:An objective identification technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily composite- drought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identified, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into five types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a significant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.
Distribution Characteristics of the Intensity and Extreme Intensity of Tropical Cyclones Influencing China
ZHENG Yongguang,CHEN Jiong,TAO Zuyu
2014, 28(3): 393-406 [Abstract]( 635 ) HTML PDF (2835 KB)  ( 896
Abstract:To address the deficiency of climatological research on tropical cyclones (TCs) influencing China, we analyze the distributions of TCs with different intensities in the region, based on the best-track TC data for 1949-2011 provided by the Shanghai Typhoon Institute. We also present the distributions of 50- and 100-yr return-period TCs with different intensities using the Gumbel probability distribution. The results show that TCs with different intensities exert distinctive effects on various regions of China and its surrounding waters. The extreme intensity distributions of TCs over these different regions also differ. Super and severe typhoons mainly influence Taiwan Island and coastal areas of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces, while typhoons and TCs with lower intensities influence South China most frequently. The probable maximum TC intensity (PMTI) with 50- and 100-yr return periods influencing Taiwan Island is below 890 hPa; the PMTI with a50-yr return period influencing the coastal areas of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces is less than 910 hPa, and that with a 100-yr return period is less than 900 hPa; the PMTI with a 50-yr return period influencing the coastal areas of Hainan, Guangdong, and the northern part of the South China Sea is lower than 930 hPa, and that with a 100-yr return period is less than 920 hPa. The results provide a useful reference for the estimation of extreme TC intensities over different regions of China.
Mean Structure of Tropical Cyclones Making Landfall in Mainland China
BAI Lina,YU Hui,XU Yinglong,WANG Yuan
2014, 28(3): 407-419 [Abstract]( 723 ) HTML PDF (1977 KB)  ( 862
Abstract:The mean kinematic and thermodynamic structures of tropical cyclones (TCs) making landfall in main- land China are examined by using sounding data from 1998 to 2009. It is found that TC landfall is usually accompanied with a decrease in low-level wind speed, an expansion of the radius of strong wind, weakening of the upper-level warm core, and drying of the mid-tropospheric air. On average, the warm core of the TCs dissipates 24 h after landfall. The height of the maximum low-level wind and the base of the stable layer both increase with the increased distance to the TC center; however, the former is always higher than the latter. In particular, an asymmetric structure of the TC after landfall is found. The kinematic and thermodynamic structures across various areas of TC circulation differ, especially over the left-front and right-rear quadrants (relative to the direction of TC motion). In the left-front quadrant, strong winds locate at a smaller radius, the upper-level temperature is warmer with the warm core extending into a deep layer, while the wet air occupies a shallow layer. In the right-rear quadrant, strong wind and wet air dwell in an area that is broader and deeper, and the warmest air is situated farther away from the TC center.
Marine-Atmospheric Boundary Layer Characteristics over the South China Sea During the Passage of Strong Typhoon Hagupit
CHENG Xueling,WU Lin,SONG Lili,WANG Binglan,ZENG Qingcun
2014, 28(3): 420-429 [Abstract]( 671 ) HTML PDF (965 KB)  ( 720
Abstract:The structures and characteristics of the marine-atmospheric boundary layer over the South China Sea during the passage of strong Typhoon Hagupit are analyzed in detail in this paper. The typhoon was generated in the western Pacific Ocean, and it passed across the South China Sea, finally landfalling in the west of Guangdong Province. The shortest distance between the typhoon center and the observation station on Zhizi Island (10 m in height) is 8.5 km. The observation data capture the whole of processes that occurred in the regions of the typhoon eye, two squall regions of the eye wall, and weak wind regions, before and after the typhoon's passage. The results show that: (a) during the strong wind (average velocity ū≥10 m s-1) period, in the atmospheric boundary layer below 110 m, ū is almost independent of height, and vertical velocity w is greater than 0, increasing with ūand reaching 2-4 m s-1 in the squall regions; (b) the turbulent fluctuations (frequency > 1/60 Hz) and gusty disturbances (frequency between 1/600 and1/60 Hz) are both strong and anisotropic, but the anisotropy of the turbulent fluctuations is less strong; (c) ūcan be used as the basic parameter to parameterize all the characteristics of fluctuations; and (d) the vertical flux of horizontal momentum contributed by the average flow (ū· w) is one order of magnitude larger than those contributed by fluctuation fluxes (u'w' and v'w'), implying that strong wind may have seriously disturbed the sea surface through drag force and downward transport of eddy momentum and generated large breaking waves, leading to formation of a strongly coupled marine-atmospheric boundary layer. This results in w > 0 in the atmosphere, and some portion of the momentum in the sea may be fed back again to the atmosphere due to ū· w > 0.
The First Observed Cloud Echoes and Microphysical Parameter Retrievals by China's 94-GHz Cloud Radar
WU Juxiu,WEI Ming,HANG Xin,ZHOU Jie,ZHANG Peichang,LI Nan
2014, 28(3): 430-443 [Abstract]( 806 ) HTML PDF (1590 KB)  ( 839
Abstract:By using the cloud echoes first successfully observed by China's indigenous 94-GHz SKY cloud radar, the macrostructure and microphysical properties of drizzling stratocumulus clouds in Anhui Province on 8 June 2013 are analyzed, and the detection capability of this cloud radar is discussed. The results are as follows. (1) The cloud radar is able to observe the time-varying macroscopic and microphysical parameters of clouds, and it can reveal the microscopic structure and small-scale changes of clouds. (2) The velocity spectral width of cloud droplets is small, but the spectral width of the cloud containing both cloud droplets and drizzle is large. When the spectral width is more than 0.4 m s-1, the radar reflectivity factor is larger (over -10 dBZ).(3) The radar's sensitivity is comparatively higher because the minimum radar reflectivity factor is about-35 dBZ in this experiment, which exceeds the threshold for detecting the linear depolarized ratio (LDR) of stratocumulus (commonly -11 to -14 dBZ; decreases with increasing turbulence). (4) After distinguishing of cloud droplets from drizzle, cloud liquid water content and particle effective radius are retrieved. The liquid water content of drizzle is lower than that of cloud droplets at the same radar reflectivity factor.
Soil Moisture Effects on Sand Saltation and Dust Emission Observed over the Horqin Sandy Land Area in China
LI Xiaolan,ZHANG Hongsheng
2014, 28(3): 444-452 [Abstract]( 581 ) HTML PDF (747 KB)  ( 944
Abstract:In this study, the effects of soil moisture on sand saltation and dust emission over the Horqin Sandy Land area are investigated, based on observations of three dust events in 2010. The minimum friction velocity initiating the motion of surface particles, namely, the threshold friction velocity, is estimated to be 0.34, 0.40, and 0.50 m s-1 under the very dry, dry, and wet soil conditions, respectively. In comparison withthe observations during the dust events under the very dry and dry soil conditions, the dust emission flux during the wet event is smaller, but the saltation activities of sand particles (d ≥ 50μm) are stronger. The size distributions of airborne dust particles (0.1 ≤ d ≤ 20 μm) show that concentrations of the finer dust particles (0.1 ≤ d ≤ 0.3 μm) have a secondary peak under dry soil conditions, while they are absent under wet soil conditions. This suggests that the surface soil particle size distribution can be changed by soil moisture. Under wet soil conditions, the particles appear to have a larger size, and hence more potential saltating particles are available. This explains the occurrence of stronger saltation processes observed under wet soil conditions.
Simulation of the Electrification of a Tropical Cyclone Using the WRF-ARW Model:An Idealized Case
XU Liangtao,ZHANG Yijun,WANG Fei,ZHENG Dong
2014, 28(3): 453-468 [Abstract]( 761 ) HTML PDF (1837 KB)  ( 758
Abstract:Evolution of the electrification of an idealized tropical cyclone (TC) is simulated by using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The model was modified by addition of explicit electrification and a new bulk discharge scheme. The characteristics of TC lightning is further examined by analyses of the electrification and the charge structure of the TC. The findings thus obtained are able to unify most of the previous inconsisitent observational and simulation studies.
The results indicate that the TC eyewall generally exhibits an inverted dipole charge structure with negative charge above the positive. In the intensification stage, however, the extremely tall towers of the eyewall may exhibit a normal tripole structure with a main negative region between two regions of positive charge. The outer spiral rainband cells display a simple normal dipole structure during all the stages. It is further found that the differences in the charge structure are associated with different updrafts and particle distributions. Weak updrafts, together with a coexistence region of different particles at lower levels in the eyewall, result in charging processes that occur mainly in the positive graupel charging zone (PGCZ). In the intensification stage, the occurrence of charging processes in both positive and negative graupel charging zones is associated with strong updraft in the extremely tall towers. In addition, the coexistence region of graupel and ice crystals is mainly situated at upper levels in the outer rainband, so the charging processes mainly occur in the negative graupel charging zone (NGCZ).
Scenario Analysis on the Adaptation of Different Maize Varieties to Future Climate Change in Northeast China
XU Yanhong,GUO Jianping,ZHAO Junfang,MU Jia
2014, 28(3): 469-480 [Abstract]( 580 ) HTML PDF (1448 KB)  ( 954
Abstract:Based on gridded meteorological data for the period 1981-2100 from the RegCM3 regional model, the changing trends of climatic resources in Northeast China are analyzed, and the distributions of maize va- rieties are accordingly adjusted. In order to explore the effects of different adaptation countermeasures on climatic productivity and meteorological suitability in the future, maize cultivars with resistance to high temperatures and/or drought are selected. The results show that, in the future, there is likely to be a sig- nificant increase in thermal resources, and potential atmospheric evaporation will increase correspondingly. Meanwhile, radiation is predicted to increase significantly during 2041-2070 in the growing season. However, changes in precipitation are unlikely to be sufficient enough to offset the intensification in atmospheric evaporation caused by the temperature increase. Water resources and high temperatures are found to be the two major factors constraining grain yield. The results also show that the warming climate will be favorable for maize production where thermal resources are already limited, such as in central and northern Heilongjiang Province and eastern Jilin Province; while in areas that are already relatively warm, such as Liaoning Province, climatic productivity will be reduced. The climatic productivity and the meteorological suitability of maize are found to improve when the planting of resistant varieties is modeled. The utilization of agricultural climatic resources through the adaptation countermeasures of maize varieties is to increase obviously with time. Specifically, maize with drought-resistant properties will have a marked influence on meteorological suitability during 2011-2070, with suitable areas expanding. During 2071-2100, those maize varieties with their upper limit of optimum temperature and maximum temperature increased by 2℃, or water requirement reduced to 94%, or upper limit of optimum temperature and maximum temperature increased by 1℃ and water requirement reduced to 98%, all exhibit significant differences in climatic potential productivity, compared to the present-day varieties. The meteorological suitability of maize is predicted to increase in some parts of Heilongjiang Provine, with the eastern boundary of the "unavailable" area shifting westward.
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