J. Meteor. Res.
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2019 Vol. 33, No. 3
Published: 2019-06-28

The Tibetan Plateau Surface-Atmosphere Coupling System and Its Weather and Climate Effects: The Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment
Ping ZHAO, Yueqing LI, Xueliang GUO, Xiangde XU, Yimin LIU, Shihao TANG, Wenming XIAO, Chunxiang SHI, Yaoming MA, Xing YU, Huizhi LIU, La JIA, Yun CHEN, Yanju LIU, Jian LI, Dabiao LUO, Yunchang CAO, Xiangdong ZHENG, Junming CHEN, An XIAO, Fang YUAN, Donghui CHEN, Yang PANG, Zhiqun HU, Shengjun ZHANG, Lixin DONG, Juyang HU, Shuai HAN, Xiuji ZHOU
2019, 33(3): 375-399 [Abstract]( 101 ) HTML PDF (8353 KB)  ( 79 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a key area affecting forecasts of weather and climate in China and occurrences of extreme weather and climate events over the world. The China Meteorological Administration, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences jointly initiated the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment (TIPEX-Ⅲ) in 2013, with an 8-10-yr implementation plan. Since its preliminary field measurements conducted in 2013, routine automatic sounding systems have been deployed at Shiquanhe, Gaize, and Shenzha stations in western TP, where no routine sounding observations were available previously. The observatio-nal networks for soil temperature and soil moisture in the central and western TP have also been established. Meanwhile, the plateau-scale and regional-scale boundary layer observations, cloud-precipitation microphysical observations with multiple radars and aircraft campaigns, and tropospheric-stratospheric air composition observations at multiple sites, were performed. The results so far show that the turbulent heat exchange coefficient and sensible heat flux are remarkably lower than the earlier estimations at grassland, meadow, and bare soil surfaces of the central and western TP. Climatologically, cumulus clouds over the main body of the TP might develop locally instead of originating from the cumulus clouds that propagate northward from South Asia. The TIPEX-Ⅲ observations up to now also reveal diurnal variations, macro-and microphysical characteristics, and water-phase transition mechanisms, of cumulus clouds at Naqu station. Moreover, TIPEX-Ⅲ related studies have proposed a maintenance mechanism responsible for the Asian "atmospheric water tower" and demonstrated the effects of the TP heating anomalies on Afri-can, Asian, and North American climates. Additionally, numerical modeling studies show that the Γ distribution of raindrop size is more suitable for depicting the TP raindrop characteristics compared to the M-P distribution, the overestimation of sensible heat flux can be reduced via modifying the heat transfer parameterization over the TP, and considering climatic signals in some key areas of the TP can improve the skill for rainfall forecast in the central and eastern parts of China. Furthermore, the TIPEX-Ⅲ has been promoting the technology in processing surface observations, soundings, and radar observations, improving the quality of satellite retrieved soil moisture and atmospheric water vapor content products as well as high-resolution gauge-radar-satellite merged rainfall products, and facilitating the meteorological monitoring, forecasting, and data sharing operations.
Impact of Surface Potential Vorticity Density Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau on the South China Extreme Precipitation in January 2008. Part I: Data Analysis
Tingting MA, Guoxiong WU, Yimin LIU, Zhihong JIANG, Jiahui YU
2019, 33(3): 400-415 [Abstract]( 67 ) HTML PDF (1778 KB)  ( 82 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The external source/sink of potential vorticity (PV) is the original driving force for the atmospheric circulation. The relationship between surface PV generation and surface PV density forcing is discussed in detail in this paper. Moreover, a case study of the extreme winter freezing rain/snow storm over South China in January 2008 is performed, and the surface PV density forcing over the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been found to significantly affect the precipitation over South China in this case. The TP generated PV propagated eastward in the middle troposphere. The associated zonal advection of positive absolute vorticity resulted in the increasing of cyclo-nic relative vorticity in the downstream region of the TP. Ascending air and convergence in the lower troposphere developed, which gave rise to the development of the southerly wind. This favored the increasing of negative meridio-nal absolute vorticity advection in the lower troposphere, which provided a large-scale circulation background conducive to ascending motion such that the absolute vorticity advection increased with height. Consequently, the ascending air further strengthened the southerly wind and the vertical gradient of absolute vorticity advection between the lower and middle troposphere in turn. Under such a situation, the enhanced ascending, together with the moist air transported by the southerly wind, formed the extreme winter precipitation in January 2008 over South China.
Impact of Surface Potential Vorticity Density Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau on the South China Extreme Precipitation in January 2008. Part ll: Numerical Simulation
Jiahui YU, Yimin LIU, Tingting MA, Guoxiong WU
2019, 33(3): 416-432 [Abstract]( 52 ) HTML PDF (4487 KB)  ( 47 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The surface air convergence on the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can increase the in situ surface potential vorticity density (PVD). Since the elevated TP intersects with the isentropic surfaces in the lower troposphere, the increased PVD on the eastern flank of TP thus forms a PVD forcing to the intersected isentropic surface in the boundary layer. The influence of surface PVD forcing over the TP on the extreme freezing rain/snow over South China in January 2008 is investigated by using numerical experiments based on the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL). Compared with observations, the simulation results show that, by using a nudging method for assimilating observation data in the initial flow, this model can reasonably reproduce the distribution of precipitation, atmospheric circulation, and PVD propagation over and downstream of the TP during the extreme winter precipitation period. In order to investigate the impact of the increased surface PVD over the TP on the extreme precipitation in South China, a sensitivity experiment with surface PVD reduced over the TP region was performed. Compared with the control experiment, it is found that the precipitation in the TP downstream area, especially in Southeast China, is reduced. The rainband from Guangxi Region to Shandong Province has almost disappeared. In the lower troposphere, the increase of surface PVD over the TP region has generated an anomalous cyclonic circulation over southern China, which plays an important role in increasing southerly wind and the water vapor transport in this area; it also increases the northward negative absolute vorticity advection. In the upper troposphere, the surface PVD generated in eastern TP propagates on isentropic surface along westerly wind and results in positive absolute vorticity advection in the downstream areas. Consequently, due to the development of both ascending motion and water vapor transport in the downstream place of the TP, extremely heavy precipitation occurs over southern China. Thereby, a new mechanism concerning the influence of the increased surface PVD over the eastern TP slopes on the extreme weather event occurring over southern China is revealed.
Microphysical Properties of Convective Clouds in Summer over the Tibetan Plateau from SNPP/VⅡRS Satellite Data
Zhiguo YUE, Xing YU, Guihua LIU, Jin DAI, Yannian ZHU, Xiaohong XU, Ying HUI, Chuang CHEN
2019, 33(3): 433-445 [Abstract]( 50 ) HTML PDF (18985 KB)  ( 34 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in formation and development of the East Asian atmospheric circulation, climate variability, and disastrous weathers in China. Among the many topics on TP meteorology, it is critical to understand the microphysical characteristics of clouds over the TP; however, observations of the cloud microphysics in this area are insufficient mainly due to sparse stations and limited cloud physical data. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VⅡRS), onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite, has an improved imaging spectroradiometer with 17 channels of 750-m moderate resolution and 5 channels of 375-m image resolution. The high-resolution instrument has an advantage for observing the small or initial convective clouds. Based on the methodologies that we proposed before for retrieving cloud microphysical properties from SNPP, an automated mapping software package named Automatic Mapping of Convective Clouds (AMCC) has been developed at the scale of satellite swath. The properties of convective clouds are retrieved by AMCC and their values are averaged over 0.33°×0.33° grids based on the SNPP/VⅡRS satellite data over the TP during the summers of 2013-17. The results show that:(1) the temperature of lifting condensation level (TLCL) at Naqu meteorological station and the cloud base temperature (Tb) retrieved from VⅡRS are linearly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.87 and standard deviation (STD) of 3.0℃; (2) convective clouds over the TP have the following macro-and microphysical properties. First, the cloud base temperature (Tb) is about -5℃, the cloud base height above the ground (Hb) ranges between 1800 and 2200 m, and the cloud water content is low. Second, the cloud condensation nuclei concentration (NCCN) is between 200 and 400 mg-1 with 0.7% in maximum supersaturation (Smax); consequently, the condensation growth of water cloud droplet with less NCCN and higher Smax is fast. Third, because the precipitation initiation depth (D14) varies within 1500-2000 m and 500-1000 m at the Yarlung Zangbo River basin and southern Tibet, respectively, the clouds over these areas are more prone to precipitation. Fourth, mean height of the cloud top above sea level (Htop) is between 10 and 13 km, but the cloud depth (Dcld) is rather small, which is about 5000 m in southern TP and gradually reduces to 2500 m in northern TP. Fifth, the glaciation temperature (Tg) ranges from -30℃ in central and southern TP to -25℃ in northern TP, which, combined with the warmer Tg and the Tb less than 0℃, leads to the domination of ice process in the clouds; (3) the macro-and microphysical properties of convective clouds over the TP explain why rainfall there is frequent and lasts over a short time with small amount and large rain drops.
Comparative Analyses of Vertical Structure of Deep Convective Clouds Retrieved from Satellites and Ground-Based Radars at Naqu over the Tibetan Plateau
Hui Wang, Xueliang Guo
2019, 33(3): 446-462 [Abstract]( 50 ) HTML PDF (9511 KB)  ( 52
Abstract:In order to improve understanding of deep convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, characteristics of vertical structure of a deep strong convective cloud over Naqu station and a deep weak convective cloud approximately 100 km to the west of Naqu station, which occurred over 1300-1600 Beijing Time (BT) 9 July 2014 during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment (TIPEX-Ⅲ), are analyzed, based on multi-source satellite data from TRMM, CloudSat, and Aqua, and radar data from ground-based vertically pointing radars (C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar and KA-band millimeter wave cloud radar). The results are as follows. (1) The horizontal scales of both the deep strong and deep weak convective clouds were small (10-20 km), and their tops were high[15-16 km above sea level (ASL)]. Across the level of 0℃ isotherm in the deep strong convective cloud, the reflectivity increased rapidly, suggesting that the melting process of solid precipitation particles through the 0℃ level played an important role. A bright band located at 5.5 km ASL (i.e., 1 km above ground level) appeared during the period of convection weakening. (2) The reflectivity values from TRMM precipitation radar below 11 km were found to be overestimated compared to those derived from the C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar. (3) Deep convective clouds were mainly ice clouds, and there were rich small ice particles above 10 km, while few large ice particles were found below 10 km. The microphysical processes of deep strong and deep weak convective clouds mainly included mixed-phase process and glaciated process, and the mixed-phase process can be divided into two types:one was the rimming process below the level of -25℃ (deep strong convective cloud) or -29℃ (deep weak convective cloud) and the other was aggregation and deposition process above that level. The latter process was accompanied with fast increase in ice particle effective radius. The above evidence from space-based and ground-based observational data further clarify the characteristics of vertical structure of deep convective clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, and provide a basis for the evaluation of simulation results of deep convective clouds by cloud models.
A Numerical Investigation on Microphysical Properties of Clouds and Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in Summer 2014
Jie TANG, Xueliang GUO, Yi CHANG
2019, 33(3): 463-477 [Abstract]( 47 ) HTML PDF (2865 KB)  ( 74 Supplemental Material
Abstract:In order to improve our understanding of microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), six cloud and precipitation processes with different intensities during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment (TIPEX-Ⅲ) from 3 July to 25 July 2014 in Naqu region of the TP are investigated by using the high-resolution mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The results show unique properties of summertime clouds and precipitation processes over the TP. The initiation process of clouds is closely associated with strong solar radiative heating in the daytime, and summertime clouds and precipitation show an obvious diurnal variation. Generally, convective clouds would transform into stratiform clouds with an obvious bright band and often produce strong rainfall in midnight. The maximum cloud top can reach more than 15 km above sea level and the velocity of updraft ranges from 10 to 40 m s-1. The simulations show high amount of supercooled water content primarily located between 0 and -20℃ layer in all the six cases. Ice crystals mainly form above the level of -20℃ and even appear above the level of -40℃ within strong convective clouds. Rainwater mostly appears below the melting layer, indicating that its formation mainly depends on the melting process of precipitable ice particles. Snow and graupel particles have the characteristics of high content and deep vertical distribution, showing that the ice phase process is very active in the development of clouds and precipitation. The conversion and formation of hydrometeors and precipitation over the plateau exhibit obvious characteristics. Surface precipitation is mainly formed by the melting of graupel particles. Although the warm cloud microphysical process has less direct contribution to the formation of surface precipitation, it is important for the formation of supercooled raindrops, which are essential for the formation of graupel embryos through heterogeneous freezing process. The growth of graupel particles mainly relies on the riming process with supercooled cloud water and aggregation of snow particles.
Intraseasonal Variations of Summer Convection over the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Geostationary Satellite FY-2E in 2010-14
Bo LI, Liu YANG, Shihao TANG
2019, 33(3): 478-490 [Abstract]( 43 ) HTML PDF (6418 KB)  ( 48 Supplemental Material
Abstract:Based on the infrared black body temperature (TBB) observed by the geostationary meteorological satellite FY-2E from 2010 to 2014, the seasonal migration, occurrence frequency, and intraseasonal variability of summer convection over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surrounding areas are analyzed. The results show that in May, convection mainly occurs over the eastern edge of the TP; in June, following the onset of the Asian summer monsoon, the strongest (severe) convection occurs in the southeastern part of the TP; and in July-August, strong southwesterly winds transport abundant moisture to the eastern and central areas of the TP, leading to formation of an active convection belt over southeastern TP. The results also show that in the western TP, the area with convection frequency greater than 6% occupies the southern plateau around the 37th pentad, and gradually moves northward until the end of July; in the central plateau, convection (severe convection) becomes active since early (mid) June, and maintains through the entire late summer with three major northward movements until reaching 34°N; and in the eastern TP, the convection is relatively active since the beginning of May and its northward stretching is slightly later than that over the central plateau. Overall, summer convective activities are unevenly distributed over the TP, with frequency of convection decreasing from south to north; and they also exhibit considerable intraseasonal variability, the maximum of which is found over the middle reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River and the southeastern plateau. EOF analysis of summer convection frequency over the TP reveals two leading modes, with the first mode being a dipole variation pattern between the Indian monsoon region and the southeastern TP, and the second mode a tripole pattern over the western TP, the Indian continent west of 80°E, and the South Asian continent east of 80°E.
Variations of Surface Heat Fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau before and after the Onset of the South Asian Summer Monsoon during 1979-2016
Yizhe HAN, Weiqiang MA, Yaoming MA, Cuiyan SUN
2019, 33(3): 491-500 [Abstract]( 43 ) HTML PDF (835 KB)  ( 43
Abstract:As the "Third Pole of the World," the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an important thermal forcing to the South Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and even the global atmospheric circulation. In this paper, surface heat fluxes from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data during March-October of 1979-2016 in the TP and its surrounding areas are examined and analyzed. The results are as follows. (1) From March to May (before the ASM onset), the main body of the TP is dominated by sensible heat flux, which increases rapidly with high (low) values in the west (east), while the change of latent heat flux is small but it increases with time. (2) From June to August (after the ASM onset), sensible heat flux over the TP decreases, while latent heat flux increases rapidly with high (low) values in the east (west). (3) From September to October (after the ASM withdrawal), sensible and latent heat fluxes are comparable to each other in strength, again with high (low) sensible heat flux in the west (east). (4) During 1979-2016, surface sensible heat flux in the whole TP shows a slightly downward trend, while latent heat flux shows an increasing trend. Specifically, in the western TP, sensible (latent) heat flux shows a weak decreasing (an increasing) trend; while in the eastern TP, sensible (latent) heat flux decreases (increases obviously). These variations are consistent with the observed warming and moistening in the TP region. The above results are useful for further analysis of the change of atmospheric heat sources and surface heat fluxes over the TP based on the data from the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Science Experiment (TIPEX-Ⅲ).
Quality Control and Evaluation of the Observed Daily Data in the North American Soil Moisture Database
Weilin LIAO, Dagang WANG, Guiling WANG, Youlong XIA, Xiaoping LIU
2019, 33(3): 501-518 [Abstract]( 182 ) HTML PDF (11178 KB)  ( 157 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to assemble and homogenize in situ soil moisture measurements from 32 observational networks in the United States and Canada encompassing more than 1800 stations. Although statistical quality control (QC) procedures have been applied in the NASMD, the soil moisture content tends to be systematically underestimated by in situ sensors in frozen soils, and using a single maximum threshold (i.e., 0.6 m3 m-3) may not be sufficient for robust QC because of the diverse soil textures in North America. In this study, based on the in situ soil porosity and North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) Noah soil temperature, the simple automated QC method is revised to supplement the existing QC approach. This revised QC method is first validated based on the assessment at 78 of the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations where the manually checked data are available, and is then applied to all stations in the NASMD to produce a more strict quality-controlled dataset. The results show that the revised automated QC procedure can flag the spurious and erroneous soil moisture measurements for the SCAN stations, especially for those located in high altitudes and latitudes. Relative to station measurements in the original NASMD, the quality-controlled data show a slightly better agreement with the manually checked soil moisture content. It should be noted that this quality-controlled dataset may be over-flagged for some valid soil moisture measurements due to potential errors of the soil temperature and soil porosity data, and validation in this study is limited by the availability of benchmark soil moisture data. The updated QC and additional validation will be desirable to boost confidence in the product when high-quality data become available in the future.
Assessing the Performance of Separate Bias Kalman Filter in Correcting the Model Bias for Estimation of Soil Moisture Profiles
Bangjun CAO, Fuping MAO, Shuwen ZHANG, Shaoying LI, Tian WANG
2019, 33(3): 519-527 [Abstract]( 180 ) HTML PDF (1207 KB)  ( 106 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The performance of separate bias Kalman filter (SepKF) in correcting the model bias for the improvement of soil moisture profiles is evaluated by assimilating the near-surface soil moisture observations into a land surface model (LSM). First, an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is carried out, where the true soil moisture is known, two types of model bias (i.e., constant and sinusoidal) are specified, and the bias error covariance matrix is assumed to be proportional to the model forecast error covariance matrix with a ratio λ. Second, a real assimilation experiment is carried out with measurements at a site over Northwest China. In the OSSE, the soil moisture estimation with the SepKF is improved compared with ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) without the bias filter, because SepKF can properly correct the model bias, especially in the situation with a large model bias. However, the performance of SepKF becomes slightly worse if the constant model bias increases or temporal variability of the sinusoidal model bias becomes large. It is suggested that the ratio λ should be increased (decreased) in order to improve the soil moisture estimation if temporal variability of the sinusoidal model bias becomes high (low). Finally, the assimilation experiment with real observations also shows that SepKF can further improve the estimation of soil moisture profiles compared with EnKF without the bias correction.
The Extra-Area Effect in 71 Cloud Seeding Operations during Winters of 2008-14 over Jiangxi Province, East China
Weijian WANG, Zhanyu YAO, Jianping GUO, Chao TAN, Shuo JIA, Wenhui ZHAO, Pei ZHANG, Liangshu GAO
2019, 33(3): 528-539 [Abstract]( 91 ) HTML PDF (1284 KB)  ( 113 Supplemental Material
Abstract:Effects of weather modification operations on precipitation in target areas have been widely reported, but little is specifically known about the downwind (extra-area) effects in China. We estimated the extra-area effect of an operational winter (November-February) aircraft cloud-seeding project in northern Jiangxi Province in eastern China by using a revised historical target/control regression analysis method based on the precipitation data in winter. The results showed that the overall seasonal average rainfall at the downwind stations increased by 21.67% (p=0.0013). This enhancement effect was detected as far as 120 km away from the target area. Physical testing was used to compare the cloud characteristics before and after seeding on 29 November 2014. A posteriori analysis with respect to the characteristics of cloud units derived from operational weather radar data in Jiangxi was performed by tracking cloud units. Radar features in the target unit were enhanced relative to the control unit for more than two hours after the operational cloud seeding, which is indicative of the extra-area seeding effect. The findings could be used to help relieve water shortages in China.
The China Multi-Model Ensemble Prediction System and Its Application to Flood-Season Prediction in 2018
Hong-Li REN, Yujie WU, Qing BAO, Jiehua MA, Changzheng LIU, Jianghua WAN, Qiaoping LI, Xiaofei WU, Ying LIU, Ben TIAN, Joshua-Xiouhua FU, Jianqi SUN
2019, 33(3): 540-552 [Abstract]( 176 ) HTML PDF (9746 KB)  ( 120 Supplemental Material
Abstract:Multi-model ensemble prediction is an effective approach for improving the prediction skill short-term climate prediction and evaluating related uncertainties. Based on a combination of localized operation outputs of Chinese climate models and imported forecast data of some international operational models, the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration has established the China multi-model ensemble prediction system version 1.0 (CMMEv1.0) for monthly-seasonal prediction of primary climate variability modes and climate elements. We verified the real-time forecasts of CMMEv1.0 for the 2018 flood season (June-August) starting from March 2018 and evaluated the 1991-2016 hindcasts of CMMEv1.0. The results show that CMMEv1.0 has a significantly high prediction skill for global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, especially for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical central-eastern Pacific. Additionally, its prediction skill for the North Atlantic SST triple (NAST) mode is high, but is relatively low for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode. Moreover, CMMEv1.0 has high skills in predicting the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the June-July-August (JJA) season. The JJA air temperature in the CMMEv1.0 is predicted with a fairly high skill in most regions of China, while the JJA precipitation exhibits some skills only in northwestern and eastern China. For real-time forecasts in March-August 2018, CMMEv1.0 has accurately predicted the ENSO phase transition from cold to neutral in the tropical central-eastern Pacific and captures evolutions of the NAST and IOD indices in general. The system has also captured the main features of the summer WPSH and EASM indices in 2018, except that the predicted EASM is slightly weaker than the observed. Furthermore, CMMEv1.0 has also successfully predicted warmer air temperatures in northern China and captured the primary rainbelt over northern China, except that it predicted much more precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River than observation.
Evaluation of Cloud Top Height Retrievals from China's Next-Generation Geostationary Meteorological Satellite FY-4A
Zhonghui TAN, Shuo MA, Xianbin ZHAO, Wei YAN, Wen LU
2019, 33(3): 553-562 [Abstract]( 109 ) HTML PDF (2045 KB)  ( 98 Supplemental Material
Abstract:To evaluate the validity of cloud top height (CTH) retrievals from FY-4A, the first of China's next-generation geostationary meteorological satellite series, the retrievals are compared to those from Himawari-8, CloudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational products from August to October 2017. Regarding CTHs from CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS as truth, the results show that the performance of FY-4A CTH retrievals is similar to that of Himawari-8. Both FY-4A and Himawari-8 retrieve reasonable CTH values for single-layer clouds, but perform poorly for multi-layer clouds. The mean bias error (MBE) shows that the mean value of FY-4A CTH retrievals is smaller than that of Himawari-8 for single-layer clouds but larger for multi-layer clouds. For ice crystal clouds, both FY-4A and Himawari-8 obtain the underestimated CTHs. However, there is a tendency for FY-4A and Himawari-8 to overestimate the CTH values of CloudSat and CALIPSO mainly for low level liquid water clouds. The temperature inversion near the tops of water clouds may result in an overestimation of CTHs. According to the MBE change with altitude, FY-4A and Himawari-8 overestimate the CTHs mainly for clouds below 3 km, and the overestimation is slightly more apparent in Himawari-8 data than that in FY-4A values. As the cloud optical thickness (COT) increases, the CTH bias of FY-4A CTH retrievals gradually decreases. Two typical cases are analyzed to illustrate the differences between different satellites' CTH retrievals in detail.
Comparison of the Global Energy Cycle between Chinese Reanalysis Interim and ECMWF Reanalysis
Bin ZHAO, Bo ZHANG, Chunxiang SHI, Jingwei LIU, Lipeng JIANG
2019, 33(3): 563-575 [Abstract]( 152 ) HTML PDF (3085 KB)  ( 115 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The global energy cycle is a diagnostic metric widely used to gauge the quality of datasets. In this paper, the "Mixed Space-Time Domain" method for diagnosis of energy cycle is evaluated by using newly developed datasets-the Chinese Reanalysis Interim (CRAI) and ECMWF Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5), over a 7-yr period (2010-16) on seasonal and monthly timescales. The results show that the energy components calculated from the two reanalysis datasets are highly consistent; however, some components in the global energy integral from CRAI are slightly larger than those from ERA5. The main discrepancy in the energy components stems from the conversion of baroclinic process, whereas the dominant difference originates from the conversion from stationary eddy available potential energy to stationary eddy kinetic energy (CES), which is caused by systematic differences in the temperature and vertical velocity in low-mid latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and near the Antarctic, where there exist complex terrains. Furthermore, the monthly analysis reveals that the general discrepancy in the temporal variation between the two datasets also lie mainly in the CES as well as corresponding generation and dissipation rates.
Erratum to: Modeling Study of Foehn Wind Events in Antarctic Peninsula with WRF Forced by CCSM
Chongran ZHANG, Jing ZHANG
2019, 33(3): 576-576 [Abstract]( 40 ) HTML PDF (562 KB)  ( 12
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