J. Meteor. Res.
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2018 Vol. 32, No. 1
Published: 2018-02-28

Chemical Components, Variation, and Source Identification of PM1 during the Heavy Air Pollution Episodes in Beijing in December 2016
Yangmei ZHANG, Yaqiang WANG, Xiaoye ZHANG, Xiaojing SHEN, Junying SUN, Lingyan WU, Zhouxiang ZHANG, Haochi CHE
2018, 32(1): 1-13 [Abstract]( 42 ) HTML PDF (4860 KB)  ( 83 Supplemental Material
Abstract:Air pollution is a current global concern. The heavy air pollution episodes (HPEs) in Beijing in December 2016 severely influenced visibility and public health. This study aims to survey the chemical compositions, sources, and formation processes of the HPEs. An aerodyne quadruple aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was utilized to measure the non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) mass concentration and size distributions of the main chemical components including organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride in situ during 15-23 December 2016. The NR-PM1 mass concentration was found to increase from 6 to 188 μg m-3 within 5 days. During the most serious polluted episode, the PM1 mass concentration was about 2.6 times that during the first pollution stage and even 40 times that of the clean days. The formation rates of PM2.5 in the five pollution stages were 26, 22, 22, 32, and 67 μg m-3 h-1, respectively. Organics and nitrate occupied the largest proportion in the polluted episodes, whereas organics and sulfate dominated the submicron aerosol during the clean days. The size distribution of organics is always broader than those of other species, especially in the clean episodes. The peak sizes of the interested species grew gradually during different HPEs. Aqueous reaction might be important in forming sulfate and chloride, and nitrate was formed via oxidization and condensation processes. PMF (positive matrix factorization) analysis on AMS mass spectra was employed to separate the organics into different subtypes. Two types of secondary organic aerosol with different degrees of oxidation consisted of 43% of total organics. By contrast, primary organics from cooking, coal combustion, and traffic emissions comprised 57% of the organic aerosols during the HPEs.
Acidity of Aerosols during Winter Heavy Haze Events in Beijing and Gucheng, China
Xiyuan CHI, Pengzhen HE, Zhuang JIANG, Xiawei YU, Fange YUE, Longquan WANG, Bokun LI, Hui KANG, Cheng LIU, Zhouqing XIE
2018, 32(1): 14-25 [Abstract]( 59 ) HTML PDF (2980 KB)  ( 181 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We investigated the acidity and concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from an urban site in Beijing and a rural site in Gucheng, Hebei Province from November 2016 to January 2017 to gain an insight into the formation of secondary inorganic species. The average SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations were 8.3, 12.5, and 14.1 μg m-3, respectively, at the urban site and 14.0, 14.2, and 24.2 μg m-3, respectively, at the rural site. The nitrogen and sulfur oxidation ratios in urban Beijing were correlated with relative humidity (with correlation coefficient r = 0.79 and 0.67, respectively) and the aerosol loadings. Based on a parameterization model, we found that the rate constant of the heterogeneous reactions for SO2 on polluted days was about 10 times higher than that on clear days, suggesting that the heterogeneous reactions in the aerosol water played an essential role in haze events. The ISORROPIA II model was used to predict the aerosol pH, which had a mean (range) of 5.0 (4.9-5.2) and 5.3 (4.6-6.3) at the urban and rural site, respectively. Under the conditions with this predicted pH value, oxidation by dissolved NO2 and the hydrolysis of N2O5 may be the major heterogeneous reactions forming SO42- and NO3- in haze. We also analyzed the sensitivity of the aerosol pH to changes in the concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ under haze conditions. The aerosol pH was more sensitive to the SO42- and NH4+ concentrations with opposing trends, than to the NO3- concentrations. The sensitivity of the pH was relatively weak overall, which was attributed to the buffering effect of NH3 partitioning.
Comparison of Submicron Particles at a Rural and an Urban Site in the North China Plain during the December 2016 Heavy Pollution Episodes
Xiaojing SHEN, Junying SUN, Xiaoye ZHANG, Yangmei ZHANG, Yaqiang WANG, Kaiyan TAN, Peng WANG, Lu ZHANG, Xuefei QI, Haochi CHE, Zhouxiang ZHANG, Junting ZHONG, Huarong ZHAO, Sanxue REN
2018, 32(1): 26-37 [Abstract]( 41 ) HTML PDF (7692 KB)  ( 40 Supplemental Material
Abstract:An extensive field experiment for measurement of physical and chemical properties of aerosols was conducted at an urban site in the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) in Beijing and at a rural site in Gucheng (GC), Hebei Province in December 2016. This paper compares the number size distribution of submicron particle matter (PM1, diameter < 1 μm) between the two sites. The results show that the mean PM1 number concentration at GC was twice that at CAMS, and the mass concentration was three times the amount at CAMS. It is found that the accumulation mode (100-850 nm) particles constituted the largest fraction of PM1 at GC, which was significantly correlated with the local coal combustion, as confirmed by a significant relationship between the accumulation mode and the absorption coefficient of soot particles. The high PM1 concentration at GC prevented the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events, while eight such events were observed at CAMS. During the NPF events, the mass fraction of sulfate increased significantly, indicating that sulfate played an important role in NPF. The contribution of regional transport to PM1 mass concentration was approximately 50% at both sites, same as that of the local emission. However, during the red-alert period when emission control took place, the contribution of regional transport was notably higher.
Aerosol Hygroscopicity during the Haze Red-Alert Period in December 2016 at a Rural Site of the North China Plain
Xuefei QI, Junying SUN, Lu ZHANG, Xiaojing SHEN, Xiaoye ZHANG, Yangmei ZHANG, Yaqiang WANG, Haochi CHE, Zhouxiang ZHANG, Junting ZHONG, Kaiyan TAN, Huarong ZHAO, Sanxue REN
2018, 32(1): 38-48 [Abstract]( 19 ) HTML PDF (3276 KB)  ( 39 Supplemental Material
Abstract:A humidification system was deployed to measure aerosol hygroscopicity at a rural site of the North China Plain during the haze red-alert period 17-22 December 2016. The aerosol scattering coefficients under dry [relative humidity (RH) < 30%] and wet (RH in the range of 40%-85%) conditions were simultaneously measured at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 700 nm. It is found that the aerosol scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by only 29% and 10%, respectively when RH went up from 40% to 80%, while the hemispheric backscatter fraction went down by 14%, implying that the aerosol hygroscopicity represented by the aerosol scattering enhancement factor f(RH) is relatively low and RH exerted little effects on the aerosol light scattering in this case. The scattering enhancement factors do not show significant differences at the three wavelengths, only with an approximate 2% variation, suggesting that the aerosol hygroscopicity is independent of the wavelength. Aerosol hygroscopicity is highly dependent on the aerosol chemical composition. When there is a large mass fraction of inorganics and a small mass fraction of organic matter, f(RH) reaches a high value. The fraction of NO3- was strongly correlated with the aerosol scattering coefficient at RH = 80%, which suggests that NO3- played an important role in aerosol hygroscopic growth during the heavy pollution period.
Tracking a Severe Pollution Event in Beijing in December 2016 with the GRAPES-CUACE Adjoint Model
Chao WANG, Xingqin AN, Shixian ZHAI, Zhaobin SUN
2018, 32(1): 49-59 [Abstract]( 27 ) HTML PDF (4164 KB)  ( 69 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We traced the adjoint sensitivity of a severe pollution event in December 2016 in Beijing using the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the China Meteorological Administration Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environmental Forecasting System). The key emission sources and periods affecting this severe pollution event are analyzed. For comaprison, we define 2000 Beijing Time 3 Dece-mber 2016 as the objective time when PM2.5 reached the maximum concentration in Beijing. It is found that the local hourly sensitivity coefficient amounts to a peak of 9.31 μg m-3 just 1 h before the objective time, suggesting that PM2.5 concentration responds rapidly to local emissions. The accumulated sensitivity coefficient in Beijing is large during the 20-h period prior to the objective time, showing that local emissions are the most important in this period. The accumulated contribution rates of emissions from Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, and Shanxi are 34.2%, 3.0%, 49.4%, and 13.4%, respectively, in the 72-h period before the objective time. The evolution of hourly sensitivity coefficient shows that the main contribution from the Tianjin source occurs 1-26 h before the objective time and its peak hourly contribution is 0.59 μg m-3 at 4 h before the objective time. The main contributions of the Hebei and Shanxi emission sources occur 1-54 and 14-53 h, respectively, before the objective time and their hourly sensitivity coefficients both show periodic fluctuations. The Hebei source shows three sensitivity coefficient peaks of 3.45, 4.27, and 0.71 μg m-3 at 4, 16, and 38 h before the objective time, respectively. The sensitivity coefficient of the Shanxi source peaks twice, with values of 1.41 and 0.64 μg m-3 at 24 and 45 h before the objective time, respectively. Overall, the adjoint model is effective in tracking the crucial sources and key periods of emissions for the severe pollution event.
Vertical Distribution Characteristics of PM2.5 Observed by a Mobile Vehicle Lidar in Tianjin, China in 2016
Lihui LYU, Yunsheng DONG, Tianshu ZHANG, Cheng LIU, Wenqing LIU, Zhouqing XIE, Yan XIANG, Yi ZHANG, Zhenyi CHEN, Guangqiang FAN, Leibo ZHANG, Yang LIU, Yuchen SHI, Xiaowen SHU
2018, 32(1): 60-68 [Abstract]( 37 ) HTML PDF (5982 KB)  ( 77 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We present mobile vehicle lidar observations in Tianjin, China during the spring, summer, and winter of 2016. Mobile observations were carried out along the city border road of Tianjin to obtain the vertical distribution characteristics of PM2.5. Hygroscopic growth was not considered since relative humidity was less than 60% during the observation experiments. PM2.5 profile was obtained with the linear regression equation between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. In spring, the vertical distribution of PM2.5 exhibited a hierarchical structure. In addition to a layer of particles that gathered near the ground, a portion of particles floated at 0.6-2.5-km height. In summer and winter, the fine particles basically gathered below 1 km near the ground. In spring and summer, the concentration of fine particles in the south was higher than that in the north because of the influence of south wind. In winter, the distribution of fine particles was opposite to that measured during spring and summer. High concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in the rural areas of North Tianjin with a maximum of 350 μg m-3 on 13 December 2016. It is shown that industrial and ship emissions in spring and summer and coal combustion in winter were the major sources of fine particles that polluted Tianjin. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of haze formation and the effects of meteorological conditions during haze-fog pollution episodes in the Tianjin area.
Characteristics of Turbulent Transfer during Episodes of Heavy Haze Pollution in Beijing in Winter 2016/17
Yan REN, Shuwen ZHENG, Wei WEI, Bingui WU, Hongsheng ZHANG, Xuhui CAI, Yu SONG
2018, 32(1): 69-80 [Abstract]( 38 ) HTML PDF (5412 KB)  ( 66 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We analyzed the structure and evolution of turbulent transfer and the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer in relation to aerosol concentrations during an episode of heavy haze pollution from 6 December 2016 to 9 January 2017. The turbulence data were recorded at Peking University’s atmospheric science and environment observation station. The results showed a negative correlation between the wind speed and the PM2.5 concentration. The turbulence kinetic energy was large and showed obvious diurnal variations during unpolluted (clean) weather, but was small during episodes of heavy haze pollution. Under both clean and heavy haze conditions, the relation between the non-dimensional wind components and the stability parameter z/L followed a 1/3 power law, but the normalized standard deviations of the wind speed were smaller during heavy pollution events than during clean periods under near-neutral conditions. Under unstable conditions, the normalized standard deviation of the potential temperature σθ/|θ*| was related to z/L, roughly following a -1/3 power law, and the ratio during pollution days was greater than that during clean days. The three-dimensional turbulence energy spectra satisfied a -2/3 power exponent rate in the high-frequency band. In the low-frequency band, the wind velocity spectrum curve was related to the stability parameters under clear conditions, but was not related to atmospheric stratification under polluted conditions. In the dissipation stage of the heavy pollution episode, the horizontal wind speed first started to increase at high altitudes and then gradually decreased at lower altitudes. The strong upward motion during this stage was an important dynamic factor in the dissipation of the heavy haze.
Differences in Meteorological Conditions between Days with Persistent and Non-Persistent Pollution in Beijing, China
Ting YOU, Renguang WU, Gang HUANG
2018, 32(1): 81-98 [Abstract]( 50 ) HTML PDF (15068 KB)  ( 95 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We compared the regional synoptic patterns and local meteorological conditions during persistent and non-persistent pollution events in Beijing using US NCEP-Department of Energy reanalysis outputs and observations from meteorological stations. The analysis focused on the impacts of high-frequency (period < 90 days) variations in meteorological conditions on persistent pollution events (those lasting for at least 3 days). Persistent pollution events tended to occur in association with slow-moving weather systems producing stagnant weather conditions, whereas rapidly moving weather systems caused a dramatic change in the local weather conditions so that the pollution event was short-lived. Although Beijing was under the influence of anomalous southerly winds in all four seasons during pollution events, notable differences were identified in the regional patterns of sea-level pressure and local anomalies in relative humidity among persistent pollution events in different seasons. A region of lower pressure was present to the north of Beijing in spring, fall, and winter, whereas regions of lower and higher pressures were observed northwest and southeast of Beijing, respectively, in summer. The relative humidity near Beijing was higher in fall and winter, but lower in spring and summer. These differences may explain the seasonal dependence of the relationship between air pollution and the local meteorological variables. Our analysis showed that the temperature inversion in the lower troposphere played an important part in the occurrence of air pollution under stagnant weather conditions. Some results from this study are based on a limited number of events and thus require validation using more data.
Changes in Extreme Maximum Temperature Events and Population Exposure in China under Global Warming Scenarios of 1.5 and 2.0℃: Analysis Using the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM
Mingjin ZHAN, Xiucang LI, Hemin SUN, Jianqing ZHAI, Tong JIANG, Yanjun WANG
2018, 32(1): 99-112 [Abstract]( 100 ) HTML PDF (6006 KB)  ( 145 Supplemental Material
Abstract:We used daily maximum temperature data (1986-2100) from the COSMO-CLM (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling in CLimate Mode) regional climate model and the population statistics for China in 2010 to determine the frequency, intensity, coverage, and population exposure of extreme maximum temperature events (EMTEs) with the intensity-area-duration method. Between 1986 and 2005 (reference period), the frequency, intensity, and coverage of EMTEs are 1330-1680 times yr-1, 31.4-33.3℃, and 1.76-3.88 million km2, respectively. The center of the most severe EMTEs is located in central China and 179.5-392.8 million people are exposed to EMTEs annually. Relative to 1986-2005, the frequency, intensity, and coverage of EMTEs increase by 1.13-6.84, 0.32-1.50, and 15.98%-30.68%, respectively, under 1.5℃ warming; under 2.0℃ warming, the increases are 1.73-12.48, 0.64-2.76, and 31.96%-50.00%, respectively. It is possible that both the intensity and coverage of future EMTEs could exceed the most severe EMTEs currently observed. Two new centers of EMTEs are projected to develop under 1.5℃ warming, one in North China and the other in Southwest China. Under 2.0℃ warming, a fourth EMTE center is projected to develop in Northwest China. Under 1.5 and 2.0℃ warming, population exposure is projected to increase by 23.2%-39.2% and 26.6%-48%, respectively. From a regional perspective, population exposure is expected to increase most rapidly in Southwest China. A greater proportion of the population in North, Northeast, and Northwest China will be exposed to EMTEs under 2.0℃ warming. The results show that a warming world will lead to increases in the intensity, frequency, and coverage of EMTEs. Warming of 2.0℃ will lead to both more severe EMTEs and the exposure of more people to EMTEs. Given the probability of the increased occurrence of more severe EMTEs than in the past, it is vitally important to China that the global temperature increase is limited within 1.5℃.
Dependence of Tropical Cyclone Intensification on the Latitude under Vertical Shear
Mingyu BI, Xuyang GE, Tim LI
2018, 32(1): 113-123 [Abstract]( 47 ) HTML PDF (6262 KB)  ( 91 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The sensitivity of tropical cyclone (TC) intensification to the ambient rotation effect under vertical shear is investigated. The results show that the vortices develop more rapidly with intermediate planetary vorticity, which suggests an optimal latitude for the TC development in the presence of vertical shear. This is different from the previous studies in which no mean flow is considered. It is found that the ambient rotation has two main effects. On the one hand, the boundary layer imbalance is largely controlled by the Coriolis parameter. For TCs at lower latitudes, due to the weaker inertial instability, the boundary inflow is promptly established, which results in a stronger moisture convergence and thus greater diabatic heating in the inner core region. On the other hand, the Coriolis parameter modulates the vertical realignment of the vortex with a higher Coriolis parameter, favoring a quicker vertical realignment and thus a greater potential for TC development. The combination of these two effects results in an optimal latitude for TC intensification in the presence of a vertical shear investigated.
How Does Tropical Cyclone Size Affect the Onset Timing of Secondary Eyewall Formation?
Liang GUAN, Xuyang GE
2018, 32(1): 124-134 [Abstract]( 47 ) HTML PDF (6936 KB)  ( 93 Supplemental Material
Abstract:By using idealized numerical simulations, the impact of tropical cyclone size on secondary eyewall formation (SEF) is examined. Both unbalanced boundary layer and balanced processes are examined to reveal the underlying mechanism. The results show that a tropical cyclone (TC) with a larger initial size favors a quicker SEF and a larger outer eyewall. For a TC with a larger initial size, it will lead to a stronger surface entropy flux, and thus more active outer convection. Meanwhile, a greater inertial stability helps the conversion from diabatic heating to kinetic energy. Furthermore, the progressively broadening of the tangential wind field will induce significant boundary layer imbalances. This unbalanced boundary layer process results in a supergradient wind zone that acts as an important mechanism for triggering and maintaining deep convection. In short, different behaviors of balanced and unbalanced processes associated with the initial wind profile lead to different development rates of the secondary eyewall.
Assessing Hourly Precipitation Forecast Skill with the Fractions Skill Score
2018, 32(1): 135-145 [Abstract]( 53 ) HTML PDF (5078 KB)  ( 52 Supplemental Material
Abstract:Statistical methods for category (yes/no) forecasts, such as the Threat Score, are typically used in the verification of precipitation forecasts. However, these standard methods are affected by the so-called “double-penalty” problem caused by slight displacements in either space or time with respect to the observations. Spatial techniques have recently been developed to help solve this problem. The fractions skill score (FSS), a neighborhood spatial verification method, directly compares the fractional coverage of events in windows surrounding the observations and forecasts. We applied the FSS to hourly precipitation verification by taking hourly forecast products from the GRAPES (Glo-bal/Regional Assimilation Prediction System) regional model and quantitative precipitation estimation products from the National Meteorological Information Center of China during July and August 2016, and investigated the difference between these results and those obtained with the traditional category score. We found that the model spin-up period affected the assessment of stability. Systematic errors had an insignificant role in the fraction Brier score and could be ignored. The dispersion of observations followed a diurnal cycle and the standard deviation of the forecast had a similar pattern to the reference maximum of the fraction Brier score. The coefficient of the forecasts and the observations is similar to the FSS; that is, the FSS may be a useful index that can be used to indicate correlation. Compared with the traditional skill score, the FSS has obvious advantages in distinguishing differences in precipitation time series, especially in the assessment of heavy rainfall.
Average Amount and Stability of Available Agro-Climate Resources in the Main Maize Cropping Regions in China during 1981-2010
Jin ZHAO, Xiaoguang YANG
2018, 32(1): 146-156 [Abstract]( 25 ) HTML PDF (4656 KB)  ( 44 Supplemental Material
Abstract:The available agro-climate resources that can be absorbed and converted into dry matter could directly affect crop growth and yield under climate change. Knowledge of the average amount and stability of available agro-climate resources for maize in the main cropping regions of China under climate change is essential for farmers and advisors to optimize cropping choices and develop adaptation strategies under limited resources. In this study, the three main maize cropping regions in China—the North China spring maize region (NCS), the Huanghuaihai summer maize region (HS), and the Southwest China mountain maize region (SCM)—were selected as study regions. Based on observed solar radiation, temperature, and precipitation data, we analyzed the spatial distributions and temporal trends in the available agro-climate resources for maize during 1981-2010. During this period, significantly prolonged climatological growing seasons for maize [3.3, 2.0, and 4.7 day (10 yr)-1 in NCS, HS, and SCM] were found in all three regions. However, the spatiotemporal patterns of the available agro-climate resources differed among the three regions. The available heating resources for maize increased significantly in the three regions, and the rates of increase were higher in NCS [95.5℃ day (10 yr)-1] and SCM [93.5℃ day (10 yr)-1] than that in HS [57.7℃ day (10 yr)-1]. Meanwhile, decreasing trends in the available water resources were found in NCS [-5.3 mm (10 yr)-1] and SCM [-5.8 mm (10 yr)-1], whereas an increasing trend was observed in HS [3.0 mm (10 yr)-1]. Increasing trends in the available radiation resources were found in NCS [20.9 MJ m-2 (10 yr)-1] and SCM [25.2 MJ m-2 (10 yr)-1], whereas a decreasing trend was found in HS [11.6 MJ m-2 (10 yr)-1]. Compared with 1981-90, the stability of all three resource types decreased during 1991-2000 and 2001-10 in the three regions. More consideration should be placed on the extreme events caused by more intense climate fluctuations. The results can provide guidance in the development of suitable adaptations to climate change in the main maize cropping regions in China.
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