|The Key Oceanic Regions Responsible for the Interannual Variability of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and Associated Mechanisms
|HE Chao1,2, ZHOU Tianjun2,3, WU Bo2
|1 Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou 510080;
2 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029;
3 Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875
| Alexander, M. A., I. Bladé, M. Newman, et al., 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air-sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15, 2205-2231.
An, S.-I., J.-W. Kim, S.-H. Im, et al., 2012: Recent and future sea surface temperature trends in tropical Pacific warm pool and cold tongue regions. Climate Dyn., 39, 1373-1383.
Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, et al., 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007.
Cao Jie, Lu Riyu, Hu Jinming, et al., 2013: Spring In-dian Ocean-western Pacific SST contrast and the East Asian summer rainfall anomaly. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1560-1568.
Chang, C.-P., Zhang Yongsheng, and T. Li, 2000: Inter-annual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the subtropical ridge. J. Climate, 13, 4310-4325.
Chen Haoming, Zhou Tianjun, R. B. Neale, et al., 2010: Performance of the new NCAR CAM3.5 in East Asian summer monsoon simulations: Sensitivity to modifications of the convection scheme. J. Climate, 23, 3657-3675.
Chen Lieting, 1977: Influences of sea surface temperature anomalies over equatorial eastern Pacific on tropical circulation and flood-season precipitation in China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 1, 1-12. (in Chinese)
Chen Wei, J.-K. Park, Dong Buwen, et al., 2012: The relationship between El Niño and the western North Pacific summer climate in a coupled GCM: Role of the transition of El Niño decaying phases. J. Geo-phys. Res., 117, D12111.
Chen Wei, J.-Y. Lee, Lu Riyu, et al., 2015: Intensified im-pact of tropical Atlantic SST on the western North Pacific summer climate under a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climate Dyn., 44, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2454-4.
Chen Xiaolong and Zhou Tianjun, 2014: Relative role of tropical SST forcing in the 1990s periodicity change of the Pacific-Japan pattern interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 13043-13066.
Chen Zesheng, Wen Zhiping, Wu Renguang, et al., 2014: Influence of two types of El Niño on the East Asian climate during boreal summer: A numerical study. Climate Dyn., 43, 469-481.
Chowdary, J. S, Xie Shangping, H. Tokinaga, et al., 2012: Interdecadal variations in ENSO teleconnection to the Indo-western Pacific for 1870-2007. J. Climate, 25, 1722-1744.
Chung, P.-H., C.-H. Sui, and T. Li, 2011: Interannual relationships between the tropical sea surface tem-perature and summertime subtropical anticyclone over the western North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D13111.
Dong Lu and Zhou Tianjun, 2014: The Indian Ocean sea surface temperature warming simulated by CMIP5 models during the twentieth century: Competing forcing roles of GHGs and anthropogenic aerosols. J. Climate, 27, 3348-3362.
Du Yan, Xie Shangping, Huang Gang, et al., 2009: Role of air-sea interaction in the long persistence of El Niño-induced North Indian Ocean warming. J. Cli-mate, 22, 2023-2038.
Duan Anmin, Xiao Zhixiang, Wu Guoxiong, et al., 2014: Study progress of the influence of the Tibetan Plateau winter and spring snow depth on Asian summer monsoon. Meteor. Environ. Sci., 37, 94-101. (in Chinese)
Fu Congbin, Sun Cuixia, and Zhang Jinzhi, 1979: The atmospheric vertical circulation during anomalous periods of sea surface temperature over equatorial Pacific Ocean. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 3, 50-57. (in Chinese)
Gao Hui, Jiang Wei, and LI Weijing, 2014: Changed relationships between the East Asian summer mon-soon circulations and the summer rainfall in east-ern China. J. Meteor. Res., 28, 1075-1084, doi: 10.1007/s13351-014-4327-5.
Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106, 447-462.
Gong Daoyi and C.-H. Ho, 2002: Shift in the summer rainfall over the Yangtze River valley in the late 1970s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 78-1-78-4.
Guan Zhaoyong and T. Yamagata, 2003: The unusual summer of 1994 in East Asia: IOD teleconnections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1554.
Guan Zhaoyong, Cai Jiaxi, Tang Weiya, et al., 2010: Variations of West Pacific subtropical high associ-ated with principal patterns of summertime tem-perature anomalies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Scientia Meteor. Sinica, 30, 666-675. (in Chinese)
Guo Yufu, Wang Jia, and Zhao Yan, 2004: Numerical simulation of the 1999 Yangtze River valley heavy rainfall including sensitivity experiments with dif-ferent SSTA. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 23-33.
Ham, Y.-G., J.-S. Kug, J.-Y. Park, et al., 2013: Sea sur-face temperature in the north tropical Atlantic as a trigger for El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. Nat. Geosci., 6, 112-116.
He Chao, Zhou Tianjun, Zou Liwei, et al., 2013: Two interannual variability modes of the northwestern Pacific subtropical anticyclone in boreal summer. Sci. China (Earth Sci.), 56, 1254-1265.
He Chao and Zhou Tianjun, 2014: The two interannual variability modes of the western North Pacific sub-tropical high simulated by 28 CMIP5-AMIP models. Climate Dyn., 43, 2455-2469.
He Chao and Zhou Tianjun, 2015a: Responses of the western North Pacific subtropical high to global warming under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios pro-jected by 33 CMIP5 models: The dominance of tropical Indian Ocean-tropical western Pacific SST gradient. J. Climate, 28, 365-380.
He Chao and Zhou Tianjun, 2015b: Decadal change of the connection between summer western North Pa-cific subtropical high and tropical SST in the early 1990s. Atmos. Sci. Lett., doi: 10.1002/asl2.550.
Hong, C.-C., Y.-H. Li, T. Li, et al., 2011: Impacts of central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Niño on trop-ical cyclone tracks over the western North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16712.
Hong, C.-C., T.-C. Chang, and H.-H. Hsu, 2014: En-hanced relationship between the tropical Atlantic SST and the summertime western North Pacific subtropical high after the early 1980s. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 3715-3722.
Huang Gang, Hu Kaiming, and Xie Shangping, 2010: Strengthening of tropical Indian Ocean teleconnec-tion to the Northwest Pacific since the mid-1970s: An atmospheric GCM study. J. Climate, 23, 5294-5304.
Huang Ronghui, 1986: Mechanisms for the influence of anomalous heat source at low latitudes on Northern Hemispheric circulation in winter. Sci. China (Ser. B), 1, 91-103. (in Chinese)
Huang Ronghui and Wu Yifang, 1989: The influence of ENSO on the summer climate change in China and its mechanism. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 6, 21-32.
Huang Yanyan, Wang Huijun, Fan Ke, et al., 2015: The western Pacific subtropical high after the 1970s: Westward or eastward shift? Climate Dyn., 44, 2035-2047.
Jiang Xingwen, Yang Song, Li Jianping, et al., 2013: Variability of the Indian Ocean SST and its possible impact on summer western North Pacific anticy-clone in the NCEP climate forecast system. Climate Dyn., 41, 2199-2212.
Karori, M. A., Li Jianping, and Jin Feifei, 2013: The asymmetric influence of the two types of El Niño and La Niña on summer rainfall over Southeast China. J. Climate, 26, 4567-4582.
Klein, S. A., B. J. Soden, and N.-C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Cli-mate, 12, 917-932.
Kosaka, Y., Xie Shangping, N.-C. Lau, et al., 2013: Ori-gin of seasonal predictability for summer climate over the northwestern Pacific. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 7574-7579.
Lau, N.-C., and M. J. Nath, 2003: Atmosphere-ocean variations in the Indo-Pacific sector during ENSO episodes. J. Climate, 16, 3-20.
Li Chaofan, Lu Riyu, and Dong Buwen, 2012: Pre-dictability of the western North Pacific summer climate demonstrated by the coupled models of EN-SEMBLES. Climate Dyn., 39, 329-346.
Li Chaofan, Lu Riyu, and Dong Buwen, 2014: Pre-dictability of the western North Pacific summer climate associated with different ENSO phases by ENSEMBLES multi-model seasonal forecasts. Cli-mate Dyn., 43, 1829-1845.
Li Chongyin, 1989: El Niño event and the temperature anomalies in eastern China. J. Trop. Meteor., 5, 210-219. (in Chinese)
Li Chongyin and Hu Ji, 1987: A study on interaction between the East Asian atmospheric circulation and El Niño. Scientia Atmos. Sinica, 11, 359-364. (in Chinese)
Li Hongmei, Dai Aiguo, Zhou Tianjun, et al., 2010: Re-sponses of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950-2000. Cli-mate Dyn., 34, 501-514.
Li Shuanglin, Lu Jian, Huang Gang, et al., 2008: Tropical Indian Ocean basin warming and East Asian sum-mer monsoon: A multiple AGCM study. J. Climate, 21, 6080-6088.
Li, T., Wang Bin, C.-P. Chang, et al., 2003: A theory for the Indian Ocean dipole-zonal mode. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2119-2135.
Li Xiuzhen and Zhou Wen, 2012: Quasi-4-yr coupling between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and water vapor transport over East Asia-WNP. J. Climate, 25, 5879-5891.
Lindzen, R. S., and S. Nigam, 1987: On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 2418-2436.
Liu Yimin, Hong Jieli, Liu Chao, et al., 2013: Meiyu flooding of Huaihe River valley and anomaly of sea-sonal variation of subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 439-450. (in Chinese)
Liu Yunyun, Li Weijing, Zuo Jinqing, et al., 2014: Simu-lation and projection of the western Pacific subtrop-ical high in CMIP5 Models. J. Meteor. Res., 28, 327-340, doi: 10.1007/s13351-014-3151-2.
Lu Riyu, 2001: Interannual variability of the summer-time North Pacific subtropical high and its relation to atmospheric convection over the warm pool. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 79, 771-783.
Lu Riyu and Dong Buwen, 2005: Impact of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the summer cli-mate in the western North Pacific during 1997-1998. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D16102.
Lu Riyu, Li Yin, and Dong Buwen, 2006: External and internal summer atmospheric variability in the west-ern North Pacific and East Asia. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84, 447-462.
Lu Riyu, Li Ying, and C.-S. Ryu, 2008: Relationship between the zonal displacement of the western Pa-cific subtropical high and the dominant modes of low-tropospheric circulation in summer. Prog. Nat. Sci., 18, 161-165.
Lu Riyu and Fu Yuanhai, 2009: Summer climate vari-ability in East Asia and the western North Pacific and its mechanisms. Adv. Earth Sci., 24, 123-131. (in Chinese)
Lu Riyu and Lu Shu, 2014: Local and remote factors af-fecting the SST-precipitation relationship over the western North Pacific during summer. J. Climate, 27, 5132-5147.
Lu Riyu and Lu Shu, 2015: Asymmetric relationship between Indian Ocean SST and the western North Pacific summer monsoon. J. Climate, 28, 1383-1395.
Ohba, M., and H. Ueda, 2006: A role of zonal gradient of SST between the Indian Ocean and the western Pa-cific in localized convection around the Philippines. SOLA, 2, 176-179.
Park, J.-Y., J.-G. Jhun, S.-Y. Yim, et al., 2010: Decadal changes in two types of the western North Pacific subtropical high in boreal summer associated with Asian summer monsoon/El Niño-Southern Oscilla-tion connections. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D21129.
Qian Cheng and Zhou Tianjun, 2014: Multidecadal vari-ability of North China aridity and its relationship to PDO during 1900-2010. J. Climate, 27, 1210-1222.
Rong Xinyao, Zhang Renhe, and T. Li, 2010: Impacts of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on Indo-East Asian summer monsoon-ENSO relationship. Chin. Sci. Bull., 55, 2458-2468. (in Chinese)
Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, et al., 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360-363.
Shi Jun, Cui Linli, Liang Ping, et al., 2013: Rela-tionship between extreme high temperature in the Changjiang River Delta and the western Pacific sub-tropical high. Scientia Geogra. Sinica, 33, 1383-1389. (in Chinese)
Song Fengfei and Zhou Tianjun, 2014: Interannual vari-ability of East Asian summer monsoon simulated by CMIP3 and CMIP5 AGCMs: Skill dependence on Indian Ocean-western Pacific anticyclone telecon-nection. J. Climate, 27, 1679-1697.
Song Fengfei, Zhou Tianjun, and Qian Yun, 2014: Re-sponses of East Asian summer monsoon to natural and anthropogenic forcings in the 17 latest CMIP5 models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 596-603.
Sperber, K. R., H. Annamalai, I.-S. Kang, et al., 2013: The Asian summer monsoon: An intercomparison of CMIP5 vs. CMIP3 simulations of the late 20th century. Climate Dyn., 41, 2711-2744.
Sui, C.-H., P.-H. Chung, and T. Li, 2007: Interannual and interdecadal variability of the summertime western North Pacific subtropical high. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L11701.
Tao Shiyan and Chen Longxun, 1987: A review of re-cent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology. C.-P. Chang, and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds. Oxford University Press, London, 60-92.
Tao Weichen, Huang Gang, Hu Kaiming, et al., 2015: In-terdecadal modulation of ENSO teleconnections to the Indian Ocean basin mode and their relationship under global warming in CMIP5 models. Int. J. Climatol., 35, 391-407.
Terao, T., and T. Kubota, 2005: East-west SST contrast over the tropical oceans and the post El Niño west-ern North Pacific summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15706.
Wang Bin, Wu Renguang, and Fu Xiuhua, 2000: Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 1517-1536. Wang Bin, Ding Qinghua, Fu Xiuhua, et al., 2005: Fun-damental challenge in simulation and prediction of summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15711.
Wang Bin, Xiang Baoqiang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Sub-tropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 2718-2722.
Wang Lijuan, Gao Hui, Guan Zhaoyong, et al., 2011: Re-lationship between the western Pacific subtropical high and the subtropical East Asian diabatic heating during South China heavy rains in June 2005. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 25, 203-210, doi: 10.1007/s13351-011-0027-6.
Wang Yuenan, Zhang Bo, Chen Longxun, et al., 2008: Relationship between the atmospheric heat source over Tibetan Plateau and the heat source and gen-eral circulation over East Asia. Chin. Sci. Bull., 53, 3387-3394. (in Chinese)
Webster, P. J., A. M. Moore, J. P. Loschnigg, et al., 1999: Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997-1998. Nature, 401, 356-360.
Wu Bo and Zhou Tianjun, 2008: Oceanic origin of the interannual and interdecadal variability of the sum-mertime western Pacific subtropical high. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13701.
Wu Bo, Zhou Tianjun, and T. Li, 2009a: Seasonally evolving dominant interannual variability modes of East Asian climate. J. Climate, 22, 2992-3005.
Wu Bo, Zhou Tianjun, and T. Li, 2009b: Contrast of rainfall-SST relationships in the western North Pacific between the ENSO-developing and ENSO-decaying summers. J. Climate, 22, 4398-4405.
Wu Bo, T. Li, and Zhou Tianjun, 2010a: Relative contri-butions of the Indian Ocean and local SST anoma-lies to the maintenance of the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone during the El Niño decaying summer. J. Climate, 23, 2974-2986.
Wu Bo, T. Li, and Zhou Tianjun, 2010b: Asymmetry of atmospheric circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific between El Niño and La Niña. J. Cli-mate, 23, 4807-4822.
Wu Guoxiong and Liu Huanzhu, 1992: Atmospheric pre-cipitation in response to equatorial and tropical sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 2236-2255.
Wu Guoxiong, Liu Ping, Liu Yimin, et al., 2000: Impacts of the sea surface temperature anomaly in the In-dian Ocean on the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific—Two-stage thermal adaptation in the atmosphere. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 58, 513-522. (in Chinese)
Wu Guoxiong, Liu Yimin, Zhang Qiong, et al., 2007: The influence of mechanical and thermal forcing by the Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 770-789.
Wu Renguang, Huang Gang, Du Zhencai, et al., 2014: Cross-season relation of the South China Sea pre-cipitation variability between winter and summer. Climate Dyn., 43, 193-207.
Xiang Baoqiang, Wang Bin, Yu Weidong, et al., 2013: How can anomalous western North Pacific subtrop-ical high intensify in late summer? Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2349-2354.
Xie Shangping, Hu Kaiming, J. Hafner, et al., 2009: In-dian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730-747.
Xie Shangping, Du Yan, Huang Gang, et al., 2010: Decadal shift in El Niño influences on Indo-western Pacific and East Asian climate in the 1970s. J. Cli-mate, 23, 3352-3368.
Yang Jianling, Liu Qinyu, Xie Shangping, et al., 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02708.
Yang Jianling, Liu Qinyu, and Liu Zhengyu, 2010: Link-ing observations of the Asian monsoon to the Indian Ocean SST: Possible roles of Indian Ocean basin mode and dipole mode. J. Climate, 23, 5889-5902.
Yeh, S.-W., Y.-G. Ham, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Changes in the tropical Pacific SST trend from CMIP3 to CMIP5 and its implication of ENSO. J. Climate, 25, 7764-7771.
Ying Ming and Sun Shuqing, 2000: A study on the re-sponse of subtropical high over the western Pacific on the SST anomaly. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 193-206. (in Chinese)
Yu Rucong, Wang Bin, and Zhou Tianjun, 2004: Tro-pospheric cooling and summer monsoon weakening trend over East Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22212, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021270.
Yu Rucong and Zhou Tianjun, 2007: Seasonality and three-dimensional structure of the interdecadal change in East Asian monsoon. J. Climate, 20, 5344-5355.
Yuan Yuan and Yang Song, 2012: Impacts of different types of El Niño on the East Asian climate: Focus on ENSO cycles. J. Climate, 25, 7702-7722.
Yuan Yuan, Yang Song, and Zhang Zuqiang, 2012: Dif-ferent evolutions of the Philippine Sea anticyclone between the eastern and central Pacific El Niño: Possible effects of Indian Ocean SST. J. Climate, 25, 7867-7883.
Zhang Qingyun, Tao Shiyan, and Chen Lieting, 2003: The interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon indices and its association with the pattern of general circulation over East Asia. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 61, 559-568. (in Chinese)
Zhang Renhe, A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the ’86/87 and ’91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 49-62.
Zhang Renhe, A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1999: A diag-nostic study of the impact of El Niño on the precip-itation in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 16, 229-241.
Zhang Shangyin, Wang Shourong, Zhang Yongshan, et al., 2004: The climatic character of high tempera-ture and the prediction in the large cities of east of China. J. Trop. Meteor., 20, 750-760. (in Chinese)
Zhao Junhu, Feng Guolin, Yang Jie, et al., 2012: Analysis of the distribution of the large-scale drought/flood of summer in China under different types of the west-ern Pacific subtropical high. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 70, 1021-1031. (in Chinese)
Zheng Xiaotong, Xie Shangping, Du Yan, et al., 2013: Indian Ocean Dipole response to global warming in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble. J. Climate, 26, 6067-6080.
Zhou, T. J., and Z. X. Li, 2002: Simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM. Climate Dyn., 19, 167-180.
Zhou Tianjun and Yu Rucong, 2005: Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08104.
Zhou Tianjun, Wu Bo, and Wang Bin, 2009a: How well do atmospheric general circulation models capture the leading modes of the interannual variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon? J. Climate, 22, 1159-1173.
Zhou Tianjun, Yu Rucong, Zhang Jie, et al., 2009b: Why the western Pacific subtropical high has extended westward since the late 1970? J. Climate, 22, 2199-2215.
Zhou Tianjun, Song Fengfei, Lin Renping, et al., 2013: The 2012 North China floods: Explaining an extreme rainfall event in the context of a long-term drying tendency [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, S49-S51.
Zhou Tianjun, Wu Bo, and Dong Lu, 2014: Advances in research of ENSO changes and the associated impacts on Asian-Pacific climate. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 405-422.
Zhou Xiuji, Zhao Ping, Chen Junming, et al., 2009: Im-pacts of thermodynamic processes over the Tibetan Plateau on the Northern Hemispheric climate. Sci. China (Ser. D), 52, 1679-1693. (in Chinese)
Zhu Yuxiang, Ding Yihui, and Liu Haiwen, 2009: Sim-ulation of the influence of winter snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau on summer rainfall in China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 903-915. (in Chinese)
Zou Liwei, Zhou Tianjun, Wu Bo, et al., 2009: The in-terannual variability of summertime western Pacific subtropical high hindcasted by GAMIL CliPAS ex-periments. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 959-970. (in Chinese)
Zou Liwei and Zhou Tianjun, 2013: Can a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model improve the simulation of the interannual variability of the western North Pacific summer monsoon? J. Climate, 26, 2353-2367.
Zou Liwei, Qian Yun, Zhou Tianjun, et al., 2014: Param-eter tuning and calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme over CORDEX East Asian domain. J. Climate, 27, 7687-7701.