王 慧,丁一汇,何金海. 2006. 西北太平洋夏季风的变化对台风生成的影响[J]. 气象学报, 64(3):345-356, doi:10.11676/qxxb2006.033
西北太平洋夏季风的变化对台风生成的影响
INFLUENCE OF WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC SUMMER MONSOON CHANGES ON TYPHOON GENESIS
投稿时间:2005-03-18  修订日期:2005-06-23
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2006.033
中文关键词:  西北太平洋夏季风,台风,季风槽,垂直切变,季节内振荡
英文关键词:Northwest Pacific summer monsoon, Typhoon, Monsoon trough, Vertical w ind shear, Intraseasonal oscillation.
基金项目:中国科学技术攀登项目A“南海季风试验”
作者单位
王 慧 国家气候中心气候研究开放实验室北京100081
国家气象中心北京 100081
南京信息工程大学气象学院南京210044 
丁一汇 国家气候中心北京100081 
何金海 南京信息工程大学气象学院南京210044 
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中文摘要:
      研究了西北太平洋夏季风特征及其季风槽结构对台风生成的影响。当西北太平洋 季风槽增强并向东扩展使季风加强时,西北太平洋的风速垂直切变、高低空辐散风、湿度和海温等都对台风的生成产生有利的影响,台风数明显比季风槽弱时多。而且对台风生成的位置也有很大的影响,即季风槽强时,台风的生成位置偏东,季风槽弱时台风的位置偏西。这表明西北太平洋夏季风主要是通过季风槽活动影响台风的生成。而夏季风的强弱对台风也有影响,在西北太平洋夏季风的活跃阶段,西北太平洋夏季风强时,台风生成的比较多,夏季风中断时台风生成的比较少。西北太平洋夏季风通过季风的季节内振荡对西北太平洋台风 也有显著的影响。季节内振荡对台风生成的影响主要以30—60 d振荡为主。在这种低频振荡对流活动的湿位相时 期台风生成个数明显多,干位相时期台风生成的少。而且低频振荡的西风位相也有利于台风生成,在东风位相时生成的台风少。另外,还研究了多台风期西北太平洋夏季的特征(群发性),发现在这些时期,存在强的季风槽,弱的垂直切变与充足的水汽供应。这表明西北太平洋台风时空的群发性与夏季风活动的异常密切相关。
英文摘要:
      The influence of Northwest Pacific summer monsoon (NWPSM) characteristics and th e structure of monsoon trough on typhoon genesis is studied. When the NW Pacific monsoon trough strengthens and stretches eastwards, causing the enhancement of NWPSM, the vertical wind shear, divergent winds in the upper and lower atmosphere, humidity and sea surface temperature are all favorable to the typhoon genesis in the NW Pacific, and the number of typhoon genesis is evidently more than tha t when the NW Pacific monsoon trough is weak. Furthermore, the strength of the N W Pacific monsoon trough also has great impact on the locations of typhoon genes is. Typhoon geneses mostly occur in the western Northwest Pacific in the strong phase of the monsoon trough, whereas in the eastern Northwest Pacific in the wea k phase. These show that the NWPSM system impacts typhoon genesis mainly through the activities of the monsoon trough. And the strength of the summer monsoon al so has influence on typhoons. When the NWPSM strengthens in the active phase, th e number of typhoon geneses is more than that in the break phase. On the other hand, the NWPSM has impact on typhoon activities through intraseaso nal oscillations, and the 30-60 day oscillation is the dominant component of int raseasonal oscillations. The number of typhoon genesis is obviously more in the wet phase of low frequency convection, and less in the dry phase. The west win d phase of the low frequency zonal wind is favorable to typhoon genesis, and the t yphoon genesis is less in the east wind phase. The cases on 4 and 7 Septembe r 1987 also clearly reveal that the typhoon genesis is influenced by intraseason al oscillations, especially by the 30-60 day oscillations. In addition, the feat ures of NW Pacific summer circulation in the excessive typhoon (group occurrence ) period are analyzed. In these periods, there are generally strong monsoon trou gh, weak vertical wind shear and sufficient water vapor supply, and vice versa i n deficient typhoon periods, The above indicates that the temporal spatial grou p occurrence of typhoon genesis in the NW Pacific has a close correlation with th e activities of the NWPSM.
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