郭丽君,郭学良. 2019. 庐山云雾及降水的日、季节变化及宏微观物理特征观测试验研究[J]. 气象学报, ():-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2019.056
庐山云雾及降水的日、季节变化及宏微观物理特征观测试验研究
An Observational Study of Diurnal and Seasonal Variations, and Macroscopic and Microphysical Properties of Cloud and Precipitation on Lu Mountain, Jiangxi
投稿时间:2018-11-02  修订日期:2019-02-01
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2019.056
中文关键词:  庐山、云雾和降水、日和季节变化、宏微物理特征
英文关键词:Mount Lu, Clouds, Fogs and Precipitation, Diurnal and Seasonal Variations, Macroscopic and Microphysical Properties
基金项目:中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费专项,国家自然科学基金
作者单位E-mail
郭丽君 中国气象科学研究院云雾物理环境重点实验室 北京 taojia992@163.com 
郭学良 中国气象科学研究院云雾物理环境重点实验室 guoxl@mail.iap.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      庐山云雾观测站2015年重新开始观测试验。本文利用2015年11月-2018年2月庐山云雾试验站观测的云物理资料和九江站的雷达资料,统计分析了庐山云雾及降水的日、季节变化和宏微观物理特征。研究结果表明,庐山强降水多发生在夏季,降水强度可超过100mm/h,而云雾天多发生在秋冬春季,云雾期间最低能见度可达到20m左右,风速适宜的东北风有利于水汽的冷却凝结。平均云和雾天数是13天/月,最高云和雾天数可达到25天/月。由高湿区的发生时间可知受辐射影响的云雾多发生在凌晨到早晨之间,云雾辐射影响下最低温度发生在9点左右,即云雾消散前。长时间维持的云和雾会导致温度下降。利用雷达资料对降水分类,庐山秋冬季层状云、积层混合云和对流云降水分别占29%、44%和27%,春夏季对流云和积层混合云降水分别占83%和17%。和城市雨滴谱相比,庐山降水的中小雨滴偏多,拟合的Gamma谱型向下弯曲。和城市雾相比,庐山云雾滴谱的数浓度较低,双峰结构显著,谱较宽。通过对云内降水的微物理观测发现,随着降水量级的增加,雨滴的数浓度和尺度不断增加,更易于启动碰并机制,使小于11μm和大于30μm云雾滴减少,导致11μm的峰值更为显著。降雪期间的小云雾滴较为丰富,固态降水更容易通过淞附过程消耗过冷云滴。
英文摘要:
      The Mount Lu (Lushan) observational station of cloud and fog was restarted in 2015. We investigate the characteristics of clouds and precipitation based on observational experiment from November 2015 to February 2018 in Mount Lu station, including microphysics properties of cloud/fog and precipitation of 15 months in cold and warm seasons. The statistical results suggest that the heavy precipitation over the Mount Lu was frequent in summer with the maximal daily precipitation exceeding 100 mm. The events of clouds and fogs occurred frequently in autumn, winter and spring, with the lowest visibility about 20m. The northeastern wind with appropriate wind speed was conducive to the cooling and condensation processes of water vapor. The average number of clouds and fogs days was 13 days per month, and the maximum value reached 25 days per month. It was known from the occurrence time of the high humidity that the clouds and fogs affected by radiation occurred likely in early morning and morning. Affected by the radiation of clouds and fogs, the lowest temperature in the diurnal variation of temperature happened before the dissipation of cloud and fog, at about 9 o’clock. of the persistent clouds and fog can cause temperature to drop. Then based on the analysis of radar data, the stratiform, stratiform clouds with embedded convection and convective precipitation in the autumn and winter accounted for 29%, 44% and 27%, respectively, and convective and stratiform clouds with embedded convection precipitation in the spring and summer accounted for 83% and 17%, respectively. Compared with precipitation in city, in the precipitation processes over Mount Lu the small and medium raindrops were predominant, led to the inferior fovea in the fitting Gamma distribution. Compared with the fog in city, the cloud and fog were characterized by fewer number concentration, bimodal and wider spectra. The microphysical analysis of precipitation within clouds shows that with increasing precipitation grades, the more raindrops in number and larger raindrops in size were easier to initiate the coagulation mechanism, resulting in reduction of cloud droplets smaller than 11μm and larger than 30 μm, increasing peak at 11μm. During the snow periods, the small cloud droplets were abundant, and the solid precipitation growth consumed large freezing cloud droplets through the rimming process.
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