岳治国,余兴,刘贵华,戴进,朱延年,徐小红,惠英,陈闯. 2018. NPP/VIIRS卫星反演青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2018.051
NPP/VIIRS卫星反演青藏高原夏季对流云微物理特征
NPP/VIIRS satellite retrieval of summer convective cloud microphysical characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2018-03-09  修订日期:2018-05-29
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2018.051
中文关键词:  青藏高原,VIIRS,云微物理反演,对流云,云底温度,云凝结核
英文关键词:Tibetan Plateau, VIIRS, Retrieval of cloud microphysical, Convective cloud, Cloud base temperature, Cloud condensation nuclei
基金项目:国家自然科学基金中以国际合作项目(41561144004)
作者单位E-mail
岳治国 陕西省人工影响天气办公室 yue_zhiguo@163.com 
余兴 陕西省气象科学研究所 yuxing23@163.com 
刘贵华 陕西省气象科学研究所 liu_guihua@163.com 
戴进 陕西省气象科学研究所 djohn@sina.com 
朱延年 陕西省气象科学研究所 yannianzhu@gmail.com 
徐小红 陕西省气象科学研究所 xu_xiaohong16@163.com 
惠英 陕西省气象科学研究所 huiying@ieecas.cn 
陈闯 陕西省气象科学研究所 cczctt@163.com 
摘要点击次数: 105
全文下载次数: 55
中文摘要:
      青藏高原(下称高原)对东亚大气环流、气候变化及下游灾害性天气形成、发展有重要影响,研究青藏高原云微物理特征有重要意义。但因高原台站稀少,对云微物理研究不充分。NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership)卫星VIIRS(Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite)传感器包含17个中分辨率通道(750 m)和5个高分辨通道(375 m),具有反演初生小块对流云的优势,能够利用NPP/VIIRS反演对流云的微物理特征。利用NPP/VIIRS卫星格点对流云云物理自动反演 (Automatic Mapping of Convective Clouds,AMCC)软件对高原地区2013–2017年夏季(6–8月)过境的VIIRS资料进行了反演,得到了高原对流云宏微观物理特征,并计算了这些物理量在0.33°×0.33°格点上平均值。分析得出如下结论:(1)反演云底温度(Tb)与那曲探空计算抬升凝结温度(TLCL)线性相关,相关系数为0.87,均方根误差为3.0°C;(2)高原对流云宏微观物理特征为,一是云底冷Tb为-5 °C,云底离地高度为1800–2200 m,云内含水量小;二是云底云凝结核数浓度(NCCN)为200–400个/mg,最大过饱和度(Smax)为0.7%,NCCN少 Smax大,云滴凝结增长速率更快;三是降水启动厚度(D14)小,为1500–2000 m,雅鲁藏布江流域及藏南地区D14约500–1000 m,更加容易形成降水;四是云顶海拔高度为10–13km,云厚度从南部5000 m逐渐减小到北部2500 m,云厚有限;五是晶化温度暖,从中部、南部-30 °C到北部-25 °C,加之高原Tb<0 °C,使得云内降水粒子以冰相为主;(3)高原对流云的这些微物理特征决定了其降水具有多发、短时、量小、滴大的特点。这些结论进一步深化了高原夏季对流云的科学认识。
英文摘要:
      The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has an important influence on the formation and development of the East Asian atmospheric circulation, climate change and disastrous weather. It is very important to understand the microphysical characteristics of the cloud over TP. However, the research on the microphysical characteristics is insufficient because of the sparse observation stations and very little cloud physical data of TP. VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), onboard the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite, has an improved imaging spectroradiometer with sixteen channels of 750 m moderate resolution and five channels of 375 m image resolution. The high-resolution satellite data has an advantage of the small convective cloud. Based on the research foundation of retrieval cloud microphysical, an automated mapping system of retrieval of these properties of convective cloud fields over large areas of the scale of the satellite swath was developed. The system is named AMCCS (Automatic Mapping of Convective Clouds System). The AMCCS has used the NPP/VIIRS satellite data over the TP area from June to August in 2013-2017, and retrieved and calculated the average values of convective cloud microphysical characteristics located at 0.33°×0.33° interval grid. The results show that (1) It is linearly related with a correlation coefficient of 0.87 and a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 3.0 °C between the temperature of lifting condensation level (TLCL) in Naqu meteorological station and the temperature of cloud base (Tb) from VIIRS; (2) The TP convective cloud has the following cloud microphysical characteristics. First, cloud base temperature (Tb) is about -5 ℃, and cloud base height (Hb) is 1800–2200 m, and the cloud water content is small; Second, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations is between 200 and 400 /mg with 0.7% of supersaturation (S). Therefore, condensation growth rate of cloud with less CCN and higher S is faster; Third, because the precipitation initiation depth (D14) is small between 1500 –2000 m, and is about 500 –1000 m on the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and the Zangnan region, these clouds are more prone to precipitation; Fourth, cloud top height (Htop) is between 10 – 13 km, and cloud thickness is small from South 5000 m gradually reduced to northern 2500 m; Fifth, the glaciation temperature (Tg) is warm from -30°C of the central and southern to -25°C of the northern, and the Tb is less than 0°C, these factors make that the most of the cloud particle is ice; (3) the convective cloud microphysical properties of TP lead to the precipitation with frequent, short time, small amount and large drop.
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