王咏薇,王恪非,陈磊,张蕾. 2018. 空调系统对城市大气温度影响的模拟研究[J]. 气象学报, 76(4):649-662, doi:10.11676/qxxb2018.020
空调系统对城市大气温度影响的模拟研究
Numerical study of effect of indoor-outdoor heat exchange on urban atmospheric temperature
投稿时间:2017-09-06  修订日期:2018-03-17
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2018.020
中文关键词:  城市冠层参数化方案  空调系统  室内外热量交换  城市大气温度
英文关键词:Urban canopy scheme  Air condition  Indoor-outdoor heat exchange  Urban atmospheric temperature
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41675016)。
作者单位
王咏薇 南京信息工程大学大气环境中心, 南京, 210044
中国科学院大气边界层与大气化学重点实验室, 北京, 100029 
王恪非 南京信息工程大学大气环境中心, 南京, 210044 
陈磊 中国科学院大气边界层与大气化学重点实验室, 北京, 100029 
张蕾 南京信息工程大学大气环境中心, 南京, 210044 
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全文下载次数: 207
中文摘要:
      人为热排放对城市边界层气候效应的影响起着举足轻重的作用。在人为热源的组成中,建筑物内部的能源消耗、热量产生以及室内外热量传输与交换,对于城市热环境的改变有着非常重要的作用。因此,为研究室内空调系统的产热和通过屋顶、墙面、地面进行室内外热量传输扩散,并对室外热环境产生的影响,运用WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting Model)模式,选取BEP+BEM城市冠层参数化方案,即基于多层城市冠层方案BEP(Building Effect Parameterization)增加室内空调系统影响的建筑物能量模式BEM(Building Energy Model)的方案,以南京2010年8月2—3日,夏季三伏天晴天小风天气作为背景天气进行模拟研究。结果表明,采用WRF模式考虑空调系统室内、外能量交换的BEP+BEM参数化方案,能够更好地模拟出夏季晴天城市近地层气温。当假设空调全天开启时,白天模拟值与观测值吻合较好。夜间温度模拟值高于观测值,在22时—次日00时(北京时),存在1℃左右的偏差。白天空调系统开启对于城市近地层气温的影响不明显,而夜间使得城市气温普遍升高0.6℃,尤其是在居民区密集的地方,22—23时最大有2℃左右的升温。当调整室内空调目标温度从25℃调至27℃时,空调系统能量总释放量减少12.66%,13—16时温度下降最大,平均约为1℃,建筑物越是密集,温度下降幅度越大。
英文摘要:
      With the process of rapid urbanization, the climatic effect of Urban Heat Island (UHI) on the urban boundary layer is becoming more notable, especially with the energy consumption in buildings and the heat exchange between indoors and outdoors as parts of the anthropogenic heat. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with the Multilayer Urban Canopy Scheme (Building Effect Parameterization, BEP) and Building Energy Model (BEM) to study the effect of heat created by air conditioners and energy diffused through roofs, walls and grounds on the outdoor atmospheric environment. Several numerical experiments are conducted from 2 Aug to 3 Aug 2010 under the typical weather background in Nanjing, aiming to better understand the new urban canopy scheme and compare its simulated results with observations. The main purpose is to discuss the effect of air conditioners and heat and energy exchanges between indoors and outdoors on the urban atmospheric temperature. Results show that with the assumption that air conditioners are turned on throughout the day, the simulated temperature in the daytime is in good agreement with the observed. In the nighttime, the simulated temperature is higher than the observed with a deviation of about 1℃ during 22:00 to 00:00 BT. Air conditioners have tiny effects on daytime urban near-surface temperature, but they can lead to temperature increase by 0.6℃ in the nighttime, especially in densely populated areas, where a temperature increase of about 2℃ can be found from 22:00 to 23:00 BT. When the indoor target air temperature is adjusted from 25 to 27℃, total energy released from the air conditioning system is reduced by 12.66%, and the temperature decrease is the largest between 13:00 and 16:00 BT with an average of about 1℃. The denser the buildings are, the larger the temperature decreases.
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