韩颂雨,罗昌荣,魏鸣,黄美金,陈磊. 2017. 三雷达、双雷达反演降雹超级单体风暴三维风场结构特征研究[J]. 气象学报, 75(5):757-770, doi:10.11676/qxxb2017.058
三雷达、双雷达反演降雹超级单体风暴三维风场结构特征研究
Research on three-dimensional wind field structure characteristic of hail supercell storm by dual-and triple-Doppler radar retrieval
投稿时间:2016-11-26  修订日期:2017-06-04
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2017.058
中文关键词:  冰雹  超级单体  双雷达风场反演  三雷达风场反演  三维风场结构
英文关键词:Hail  Super-cell  Dual-and triple-Doppler radar retrieval  Three-dimensional wind structure
基金项目:福建省气象局开放式气象科学研究基金项目(2016K05)、国家973项目(2013CB430102)、地理信息科学教育部重点实验室开放研究基金资助项目(KLGIS2015A01)、国家自然科学基金项目(41305031、41675047)。
作者单位E-mail
韩颂雨 海峡气象开放实验室, 厦门, 361012
浙江省气象信息网络中心, 杭州, 310001 
 
罗昌荣 海峡气象开放实验室, 厦门, 361012 luo323@sina.com 
魏鸣 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 南京, 210044  
黄美金 福建省气象台, 福州, 350001  
陈磊 上海中心气象台, 上海, 200030  
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中文摘要:
      为研究降雹超级单体风暴的三维结构特征,利用厦门、龙岩、梅州3部新一代天气雷达(CINRAD/SA)基数据,采用基于动态地球坐标系的双雷达和三雷达三维风场反演技术,分析了2016年4月8日傍晚福建省南部漳州地区出现的一次冰雹过程的回波强度、三维风场及相关物理量分布变化。主要结果为:(1)冰雹云初生、发展阶段,低层水平流场出现气旋性辐合,云体内部形成较强的上升运动。(2)冰雹云强盛阶段,回波顶高度达16 km,其中大于60 dBz的回波高度由5.3 km发展至9 km,最强回波达74.5 dBz,伴随出现最长达25 km的三体散射长钉回波和32.7 km的旁瓣回波。低层水平维持气旋性流场的同时,高层出现反气旋性流场。4-8 km高度内,大于20 m/s的强上升气流持续近37 min。最大垂直速度达51.06 m/s,出现在超级单体悬垂部(约7.5 km高度处)。(3)降雹时段,出现明显的下沉气流。降雹超级单体的三维流场结构表现为:风暴移向前沿低层气旋性气流进入风暴后逐渐倾斜上升,到达风暴顶形成反气旋性气流,并逐渐向下形成下沉气流。(4)系统减弱阶段,出现系统性下沉气流,强回波底及地。双雷达和三雷达能较好地反演降雹超级单体的三维风场精细结构,有助于加深对冰雹云结构的认识进而提高冰雹预报能力。
英文摘要:
      Three-dimensional wind structure of supercell hailstorms is an important research topic. Based on the data of three weather radars (CINRAD/SA) deployed at Xiamen, Longyan, and Meizhou, the echo evolution, three-dimensional wind structure characteristics and distribution changes of related parameters during a hail storm occurred in the evening of April 8, 2016 in southern Fujian (Zhangzhou) are examined by means of dual-and triple-Doppler radars retrievals in the kinetic Earth coordinate. The results are as follows. (1) In the initial and developing stages of the hailstorm system, horizontal circulation showed a cyclonic convergence in lower levels and strong ascending motions appeared inside the clouds. (2) In the mature stage of the hailstorm system, the echo top was up to 16 km. Reflectivity stronger than 60 dBz developed from 5.3 km to 9 km height, with the strongest echo reaching 74.5 dBz. A 25 km long three-body scatter spike and 32.7 km long side-lobe echoes appeared at the same time. While the cyclonic circulation existed in lower levels, anti-cyclone appeared in high level. Strong updrafts with velocities larger than 20 m/s lasted for nearly 37 min between the heights of 4-8 km. The strongest updraft of 51.06 m/s occurred at 7.5 km height in the super-cell overhang. (3) Downdraft occurred during the period of hail falling. The three-dimensional flow structure of this supercell hailstorm showed that the cyclonic airflow in the front of storm ramped up to the top of storm, forming an anticyclonic circulation there, and then gradually descended, leading to the formation of downdrafts. (4) Systemic downdrafts appeared during the weakening period of the hailstorm system, and strong echo reached the ground. (5) Dual-and triple-Doppler radar could detect the meticulous structure of the supercell hailstorm. The results are helpful for better understanding the structure of hailstorms and improving the forecast ability.
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