邵慧,冼桃,陈凤娇,傅云飞,杨元建,潘邦龙. 2017. 基于TRMM PR探测的夏季合肥地区降水特征分析[J]. 气象学报, 75(5):744-756, doi:10.11676/qxxb2017.056
基于TRMM PR探测的夏季合肥地区降水特征分析
Analysis of precipitation characteristics over Hefei district in summer based on TRMM PR
投稿时间:2016-11-17  修订日期:2017-05-31
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2017.056
中文关键词:  城市化效应  TRMM PR  降水结构  对流降水  层云降水
英文关键词:Urbanization effects  TRMM PR  Precipitation structure  Convective precipitation  Stratiform precipitation
基金项目:安徽省教育厅重点项目(KJ2016ZD149、KJ2015B321)、安徽建筑大学博士启动基金项目(2015QD07)、国家自然科学基金项目(41505033、91337231)、安徽省自然科学青年基金项目(1608085QD75)。
作者单位E-mail
邵慧 安徽建筑大学电子与信息工程学院, 合肥, 230601  
冼桃 中国科技大学地球和空间科学学院, 合肥, 230026  
陈凤娇 安徽省气象信息中心, 合肥, 230031  
傅云飞 中国科技大学地球和空间科学学院, 合肥, 230026 fyf@ustc.edu.cn 
杨元建 安徽省气象科学研究所安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室, 合肥, 230031  
潘邦龙 安徽建筑大学电子与信息工程学院, 合肥, 230601  
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中文摘要:
      利用热带测雨卫星TRMM搭载的测雨雷达(PR)1998-2012年的观测资料,研究了合肥地区夏季(6、7、8月)不同类型降水的降水强度和频次的水平空间分布、降水垂直结构、日变化特征以及气候变化等特征,揭示了城市化效应造成城市及其周边区域降水特征在时空上的分布差异。研究结果表明,(1)主城区对流和层云降水强度低于周边区域,对流降水频次也低于周边区域,但层云降水频次则相反。可见城市化发展是改变降水的空间分布的因素之一,且对不同的降水类型空间分布影响不同。(2)主城区降水回波信号高度高于周边区域,而降水强度低于周边区域,表明城市效应促进降水云发展而未造成降水强度增强。(3)合肥地区对流和层云降水的强度和频次日循环存在时空分布不均匀性,其中城区的对流降水强度和频次日循环与城市热岛效应日循环具有一致性。总体来看,城市化对局地降水强度影响较大,而对局地降水频次的总体影响不是很明显。(4)通过降水气候变化分析表明,城区两种类型降水强度和频次均呈逐年下降趋势,周边区域降水强度呈不显著上升趋势,降水频次呈逐年下降趋势,其中层云降水频次下降趋势较显著。城市化进程使得城市及其周边区域降水不均匀性逐年增强。极端降水空间分布特征分析表明,城市周边区域强降水频次高于主城区,尤其在城市的下风区高出主城区75%;而周边区域弱降水发生的频次低于主城区,城市下风区最低,低于主城区约18%。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the urbanization impact on precipitation and explore the corresponding effect mechanism, the characteristics of convective and stratiform precipitation are investigated based on measurements of the TRMM Precipitation Radar over Hefei in summer (June, July, August) during 1998-2012. The results show that the development of urbanization significantly affects the spatial distribution of precipitation with higher convective and stratiform precipitation rate over the urban area and lower value over the rural area. Moreover, convective precipitation frequency is lower in the urban area than over the rural area, while stratiform precipitation frequency is higher over the rural area. In addition, the vertical structure of precipitation shows that the precipitation echo top over the urban area is higher than that over its surrounding rural area, which reveals that urbanization is conducive to the development of precipitation system but suppresses precipitation rate over the urban area. Consistent with the urban heat island diurnal variability, there is an increase in the rate and frequency of convective precipitation in the urban area during afternoon and nocturnal hours, while there is no significant diurnal cycle in the rural precipitation. In general, urbanization has a great impact on local precipitation rate, while the effect on local precipitation frequency is not significant. The long-term trend in precipitation shows that the rate and frequency decline over the urban area, while there is an upward trend in precipitation rate and a declining trend in precipitation frequency over the rural area. Additionally, the difference in precipitation characteristic between urban and rural areas becomes significant due to the urbanization. By analyzing the distribution of extreme precipitation, it is found that strong precipitation frequency over the urban area is lower than that over the rural area. In particular, it is 75% lower than that in downwind of the city, whereas weak precipitation frequency in the urban area is higher than that over the rural area and 18% higher than that in the downwind area.
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