黄磊,王长科,闫俊岳,孙启振,姚华栋,赵学华,陈长丘. 2012. 2008年夏季风期间西沙海域海-气通量交换及热量收支[J]. 气象学报, 70(3):492-505, doi:10.11676/qxxb2012.041
2008年夏季风期间西沙海域海-气通量交换及热量收支
Air-sea fluxes exchange and heat budget over the SCS Xisha seas during the period of 2008 summer monsoon
投稿时间:2010-07-06  修订日期:2011-06-14
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2012.041
中文关键词:  南海夏季风,通量交换,热量收支
英文关键词:South China Sea summer monsoon, Flux exchange, Heat budget
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2006CB403600)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(70933005、40531006)
作者单位
黄磊 国家气候中心北京100081 
王长科 国家气候中心北京100081 
闫俊岳 国家气候中心北京100081 
孙启振 国家海洋环境预报中心北京100081 
姚华栋 国家气候中心北京100081 
赵学华 海南省西南中沙气象台永兴573100 
陈长丘 海南省西南中沙气象台永兴573100 
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中文摘要:
      2008年4—10月在中国南海西沙永兴岛近海进行了第4次海-气通量观测试验,获得了整个夏季风期间近海面层湍流脉动量及辐射、表层水温、波浪及距水面3.5、7.0、10.5 m高度温、湿、风梯度观测资料,根据涡动相关法和COARE3.0 法计算结果研究了2008年南海西南季风爆发、发展、中断、衰退包括暴雨、台风、冷空气影响等天气过程中海-气通量交换和热量收支变化。结果表明:(1)季风爆发前的晴天太阳总辐射强,而海洋失热量较小,热量净收支为较大正值,海面温度迅速升高。季风爆发期太阳总辐射仍然较强,大气长波辐射也有所增强,而海面长波辐射变化很小,故海面净辐射收支仍为正值;(2)季风活跃期特别是降水阶段感热通量增大,季风中断阶段变小;季风活跃期虽然潜热通量增大,由于太阳短波辐射没有减少,海洋净热量收支稍有盈余;中断阶段潜热通量、感热通量减少,海洋吸热大于季风活跃期;降水阶段由于太阳短波辐射减小,感热通量增大,海洋热量收支出现较大负值,海面温度很快降低。季风衰退期风力减弱,湿度减小,潜热通量减小,海洋热量收入又出现较大正值,海面温度回升;(3)台风影响过程中潜热通量随着风速增强迅速增大;感热通量因降水情况不同而有差异,晴天时减小,大雨时剧烈增大;由于太阳短波辐射减少、潜热通量剧增,海洋热量净收支出现负值,促使海面温度迅速降低;(4)动量通量主要与海表面风速有关;动量通量τ与风速V的关系可以表示为τ=0.00171v2-0.003809v+0.02213。
英文摘要:
      The data of atmosphere and ocean elements, including turbulent momentum, radiation, SST, wave, carbon flux, and air temperature, humidity, wind at heights of 3.5 m, 7.0 m, and 10.5 m, were observed in the fourth air sea flux experiment during the monsoon at the Xisha islands in South China Sea (SCS) from April to October in the year 2008. The air sea flux variation and heat balance were studied during the onset, development, break and decay of the SCS monsoon, as well as the processes of rainstorms, typhoons and cold currents, using the computational results in light of the scheme of eddy correlation and COARE3.0 parameterization. The results are as follows: in the clear days before the onset of the monsoon, total radiation was high and the loss of heat of the sea was low, so the net heat gain of the sea was quite high and the SST increased rapidly. During the onset, the total radiation was still high, and the long wave radiation of the atmosphere was strengthened while the long wave radiation of the sea stabilized, so that the net heat gain of the sea was still positive. The sensible heat (H S) flux was high when the monsoon was active, especially in raining days, and the HS flux decreased at the break of the monsoon. Though the latent heat (HL) flux was high when the monsoon is active, the net heat gain of the sea was still positive because the solar short wave radiation was of high value. At the break of the monsoon, the HS and HL fluxes were reduced, and the seas gain more heat than when the monsoon was active. When it was raining, the solar short wave radiation decreased and the HS flux augmented with the result that the sea lost much heat and the SST decreased fleetly. During the decay of the SCS monsoon, the humidity and the HL flux decreased, so the net heat gain of the sea was positive, and the SST rose. Under the influence of the typhoons, the HL flux increased rapidly with the augmentation of wind speed. The HS flux was low in clear days and increased acutely in rainy days. Because the solar short wave radiation decreased and the HL increased rapidly, the net heat gain of the sea was negative, so the SST was reduced. The momentum flux was mainly related to the wind speed at the sea level. These two elements are related using:τ= 0.00171v2-0.003809v+0.02213.
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