俞小鼎,周小刚,王秀明. 2012. 雷暴与强对流临近天气预报技术进展[J]. 气象学报, 70(3):311-337, doi:10.11676/qxxb2012.030
雷暴与强对流临近天气预报技术进展
The advances in the nowcasting techniques on thunderstorms and severe convection
投稿时间:2010-05-20  最后修改时间:2011-04-08
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2012.030
中文关键词:  临近预报,雷暴,强对流,多普勒天气雷达,卫星云图,分辨率数值预报模式
英文关键词:Nowcasting, Thunderstorm, Severe convection, Doppler weather radar, Satellite image, High resolution numerical forecast model
基金项目:2009年气象行业专项(GYHY200906003)、国家自然科学基金项目(40575014、40875029、41005002)、中国气象局国家级强对流研究创新专家团队项目
作者单位
俞小鼎 中国气象局气象干部培训学院北京100081 
周小刚 中国气象局气象干部培训学院北京100081 
王秀明 中国气象局气象干部培训学院北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      临近预报指0—6 h(0—2 h为重点)的高时空分辨率的天气预报,预报对象是该时段内出现明显变化的天气现象,主要包括雷暴、强对流、降水、冬季暴风雪、冻雨、沙尘暴、低能见度(雾)、天空云量等,其中,以雷暴和强对流天气的临近预报最具挑战性。综述了针对雷暴和强对流天气的以主观预报为主、结合客观算法的临近预报技术,同时讨论了高分辨率数值预报模式在临近预报中的应用。主观临近预报技术包括基于多普勒天气雷达观测数据并结合其他资料(常规高空和地面观测、气象卫星云图、快速同化循环的数值预报产品等)对雷暴生成、发展和衰减,特别是对强对流天气(包括强冰雹、龙卷、雷暴大风和对流性暴雨)的临近预报,客观算法包括几种应用最广的雷达回波或云图外推算法和强对流天气识别技术。高分辨率数值预报模式的应用包括与雷达回波外推融合延长临近预报时效,与各种观测资料融合得到快速更新的三维格点资料为雷暴和强对流近风暴环境的判断提供重要参考。
英文摘要:
      Nowcasting refers to the weather forecast of high spatial and temporal resolution in 0-6 hours (focusing on 0-2 hours) periods, and the main forecast target is the significant changing weather phenomena in the forecast period, including thunderstorms, severe convection, precipitation, winter snowstorms, visibility, sky cover, etc. The nowcasting of thunderstorms and severe convective weather is the most challenging in the above mentioned. In this paper, subjective nowcasting techniques and objective algorithm were been reviewed, and high-resolution numerical forecast models used in the nowcasting were been discussed. Subjective nowcasting techniques include the nowcasting of the formation, development and decay of a thunderstorm as well as severe convective weather (including large hail, tornadoes, thunderstorm winds, and convective rainstorm) based on Doppler weather radar observation data combined with other data such as satellite pictures, soundings, etc. The objective algorithm includes the most widely used several radar echo extrapolation and the severe convective weather detection technology. In addition, the application of high resolution numerical prediction models includes extending the nowcast time range by combining the NWP outputs with the radar echo extrapolation, and use of rapid updated cycle integrating model outputs and a variety of observational data to construct a rapid updated three dimensional grid data base for the basic meteorological parameters, which provides an important reference to judge thunderstorm and severe convective storm environments.
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