张志强,刘黎平. 2011. S波段相控阵天气雷达与新一代天气雷达探测云回波强度及结构误差的模拟分析[J]. 气象学报, 69(4):729-735, doi:10.11676/qxxb2011.064
S波段相控阵天气雷达与新一代天气雷达探测云回波强度及结构误差的模拟分析
A simulation and analysis of the observation errors of cloud intensity and structure with the S-band phased array radar and the CINRAD/SA
投稿时间:2009-09-14  修订日期:2010-05-11
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2011.064
中文关键词:  相控阵天气雷达, 雷达增益, 波束宽度, 模拟分析
英文关键词:Phased array weather radar, Radar gain, Beam width, Simulation and analysis
基金项目:公益性行业(气象)项目(GYHY(QX)2007-6-2)“相控阵天气雷达系统关键技术研究”
作者单位
张志强 中国气象科学研究院国家灾害天气重点实验室北京100081中国科学院研究生院北京100049国家气象信息中心北京100081 
刘黎平 中国气象科学研究院国家灾害天气重点实验室北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      由中国气象科学研究院国家灾害天气重点实验室与中国电子科技集团南京第14研究所联合研制的S波段相控阵天气雷达采用宽波束发射多波束接收,从而很大程度上缩短雷达扫描周期,但是由于相控阵雷达其波束宽度的增加以及波束宽度与增益不再是定值而是随着仰角而发生变化,必然在一定程度上牺牲雷达探测分辨率,造成其回波细节的缺失。为了比较该S波段相控阵天气雷达与S波段多普勒天气雷达在探测云反射率因子大小和结构方面的差异,采用双线性插值方法,模拟出空间分辨率很高的降水云团,并模拟相控阵天气雷达和S波段新一代天气雷达的波束特性对其进行扫描,通过模拟扫描得到的反射率回波,分析了对同一降水云团、相同距离位置,相控阵天气雷达与S波段常规多普勒天气雷达回波在水平方向和垂直方向的差异,结果表明:相控阵雷达对回波水平方向上和垂直方向上的平滑作用在一定程度上改变了回波的结构,减弱了回波的中心强度,使一些小的强回波中心消失。相对于S波段多普勒天气雷达,减少了极弱回波与强回波的面积,增加了中间强度回波的面积。探索了模拟分析相控阵天气雷达与多普勒天气雷达数据的方法,为相控阵天气雷达的定标和定量测量提供了理论参考。
英文摘要:
      The State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather of CAMS and Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology have jointly developed the first S band phased array weather radar of China. In order to reduce the radar scan cycle, the S band phased array weather radar uses a transmitted beam wider in pitch and narrower in azimuth, and multi received beams to overlap the transmitted beam. However, when using this scanning method, beam width and gain are changed with elevation. For the wider beam width, it reduced the radar resolution, resulting in the absence of the details of radar echo. In order to explain theoretically the difference between observed cloud intensities and structures by the S Band Phased array radar and the CINRAD/SA, a high spatial resolution cloud dataset is reconstructed by using the bilinear interpolation method. And we also simulate the features of the S Band phased array weather radar and CINRAD/SA to scan the cloud and thus obtain the reflectivity based on which the difference of the scanning features for the S band phased array radar and the CINRAD/SA is analysed. The results show that the echo structure has been, to some extent changed because of the horizontal and vertical smoothing of the phased array radar which weakened the center of echo intensity with the center of some small strong echoes disappearing. Compared with the SA radar, it reduced very weak echo dimensions and the strong echo area, and increased the area of echoes of intermediate intensity. The paper suggested the method of contrasting the CINRAD and the phased array weather radar, and provided a theoretical framework for the calibration of this phased array weather radar and the quantitative measurements.
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