李子华,刘端阳,杨军,濮梅娟. 2011. 南京市冬季雾的物理化学特征[J]. 气象学报, 69(4):706-718, doi:10.11676/qxxb2011.062
南京市冬季雾的物理化学特征
Physical and chemical characteristics of winter fogs in Nanjing
投稿时间:2009-11-09  修订日期:2011-02-20
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2011.062
中文关键词:  南京, 浓雾, 宏微观结构, 化学特征
英文关键词:Nanjing, Dense fog, Macro and micro structure, Chemical characteristics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(40975058)、公益性行业(气象)专项(GYHY200906012、 GYHY(QX)2007-6-26)、江苏省重大科技支撑与自主创新示范工程项目(BE2008618)。
作者单位
李子华 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院, 南京, 210044 
刘端阳 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院, 南京, 210044 
杨军 南京信息工程大学大气物理学院, 南京, 210044 
濮梅娟 江苏省气象台, 南京, 210008 
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中文摘要:
      为研究南京冬季浓雾的宏微观物理结构和物理化学过程,揭示空气污染物与雾水化学结构的关系,2006—2007年冬季,在南京信息工程大学院内进行了雾的综合观测试验。观测项目包括雾的宏微观结构、雾水化学、大气气溶胶粒子谱及化学成分、辐射和热量平衡各分量、湍流以及常规气象和环境监测。在雾的生消过程中,各项目的观测是连续进行的。两年共观测到27次雾过程,并采集到37个雾水样本。按其形成,将南京冬季雾分为辐射雾、平流辐射雾和蒸发雾三类。该文详细分析了各类雾的宏微观结构,研究了强浓雾(能见度小于50m)发展的物理过程。结果指出,南京冬季雾多属暖雾,雾顶高度以平流辐射雾最高,平均顶高851m,辐射雾次之,平均顶高486 m,蒸发雾偏低,平均顶高428 m;各微物理参数均以平流辐射雾最大,辐射雾次之,蒸发雾最小,平流辐射雾含水量最大时可达1 g/m3。通过对微物理参量连续变化分析发现,平流辐射雾和辐射雾进入强盛阶段时,都具有明显的爆发性增强特征。雾水化学分析结果表明,南京雾水离子浓度比较高,酸雾约占43%,属于硫酸型,均与空气污染物SO2、NO2和颗粒物有关。
英文摘要:
      To study the macro and micro-physical structure and the physical chemical processing of Nanjing dense fogs in winter, and reveal the relationship between the air pollution and characteristics of fog water, three comprehensive field observations are conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 winters in Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST). Observations include macro and micro structure of fog, characteristics of fog water, particle spectrum and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, radiation and heat components and turbulence, as well as the conventional meteorological observational elements and environmental monitoring items. The continual observation is carried out during the fog episode. 37 fog-water samples and 27 cases, which are divided into three types of fogs (the radiation fog, advection radiation fog and evaporation fog), are obtained. Macro and micro-structure of different types of fogs are analysed in detail and physical processes in the development of dense fog are studied. The findings are as follows. Most of fogs in winter of Nanjing are the warm fog among them the advection radiation fog had the thickest layers with its top at 851 m on average; the radiation fog was in the second place with its top at 486 m on average, and the evaporation fog had the lowest layers with the top at 428 m on average. For the fog microphysical parameters, the advection radiation fog had also the largest values, which could reach 1 g/m3, followed are the radiation fog and, the evaporation fog, the smallest. From the analysis of the continuous changes of fog microphysical parameters, there was a burst reinforcement in the mature stage for either the advection radiation fogs or the radiation fogs. The fog water analysis shows that, the ions concentrations of the fog water are very high with the acid fog being about 43% of the total number of samples which belongs to the sulfate type and is related to air pollutants (SO2, NO2 and particulate matter).
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