仲凌志,刘黎平,陈林,王瑾,牟蓉,沃伟峰. 2010. 星载毫米波测云雷达在研究冰雪天气形成的云物理机制方面的应用潜力[J]. 气象学报, 68(5):705-716, doi:10.11676/qxxb2010.068
星载毫米波测云雷达在研究冰雪天气形成的云物理机制方面的应用潜力
A potential application of a millimeter wavelength radar to studying the cloud physics mechanism for ice and snow weather
投稿时间:2008-07-04  修订日期:2008-10-27
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2010.068
中文关键词:  毫米波雷达, CloudSat卫星, 零度层亮带, 冻雨, 云物理机制
英文关键词:Millimeter wavelength, Radar, CloudSat, Freezing rain,Mechanism, Zero temperature layer bright band
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“毫米波多普勒偏振雷达探测云能力和反演云参数方法的初步研究”
作者单位
仲凌志 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室北京100081
南京信息工程大学大气物理学院南京210044 
刘黎平 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室北京100081 
陈林 国家卫星气象中心北京100081 
王瑾 贵州省气象局贵阳550002 
牟蓉 重庆市气象台重庆401147 
沃伟峰 国家气象中心北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      从2008年1月10日起,受强冷空气和暖湿气流共同影响,中国南方大部分地区遭遇1954年以来罕见的冰冻天气,此次天气过程持续时间长、冰冻范围广、受灾程度重。文中简要介绍了毫米波雷达的探测特点及衰减特性;重点利用CloudSat卫星上搭载的3 mm波长云廓线毫米波雷达(CPR)的探测结果分析了1月28日、2月10日南方冰雪天气形成的云物理机制,并且与C波段测雨雷达探测结果对比;结果表明:(1)毫米波雷达具有高空间分辨率,能够清楚地反映云的垂直和水平结构,且清晰地反映云中0 ℃层融化带的垂直特征。(2) 1月28日湖南冻雨、2月10日贵州冻雨分别是“冰雪-雨-过冷雨”和“过冷云 过冷雨”两种典型的云物理机制,云内0 ℃层融化带的强度和厚度与近地面温度的高低是能否形成冻雨天气的关键因素。(3)毫米波雷达在冰冻天气研究中有很大的应用潜力;充分将毫米波雷达与天气测雨雷达以及其他遥感手段结合,可以取长补短、相得益彰。发展毫米波探测技术将对研究各种天气形成的微观物理机制、云物理的发展、气候变化的研究及人工影响天气等工作均有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Freezing rain/heavy snowfall processes occurred in the southern part of China from 10 January to 2 February 2008, which is featured with a broad spatial scale, long duration and strong intensity. The observational ability and attenuation characteristics of a millimeter-wavelength radar are introduced in this article. The cloud profile radar (CPR) data on CLOUDSAT were used to analyse the freezing rain/heavy snowfall processes to explore their cloud physics mechanism in Hunan Province and Guizhou Province. The results show that: (1) the millimeter-wavelength radar could observe the fine horizontal and vertical structures of cloud systems, and distinguish the melting process of cloud; (2) cloud phase transition within the freezing rain/heavy snowfall processes in Hunan during January is along the direction of “snow-rain-supercooled rain”, while in Guizhou during February is along “supercooled cloud supercooled rain”. Both of the intensity and thickness of zero temperature melting layer as wall as the surface temperature are key factors to the freezing rain to form; and (3) the millimeter-wavelength radar shows a great potential in helping us to study the ice and snow weather. Combining the cloud radar with the other remote sensing techniques will make significant contribution not only to weather mechanism investigations and cloud physics but also to climate change and weather modification.
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