丁德平,李英. 2009. 北京地区的台风降水特征研究[J]. 气象学报, 67(5):864-874, doi:10.11676/qxxb2009.084
北京地区的台风降水特征研究
A study on rainfall features of Beijing assoc iated with typhoons.
投稿时间:2009-03-16  修订日期:2009-06-10
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2009.084
中文关键词:  台风, 北京降水,气候特征,相互作用
英文关键词:Beijing Rainfall, Typhoon, Climatic features, Interaction
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(2009CB421504)、国家自然科学基金项目(406 75033,40730948)
作者单位
丁德平 北京市气象局北京100089 
李英 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室北京100081 
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中文摘要:
      采用上海台风研究所1949—2006年台风降水和台风年鉴资料、中国FY-2卫星和日本气象厅T BB资料以及NCEP再分析资料,首先分析58年台风影响北京降水的气候特征,然后对8407号台风Freda和0509号台风Matsa影响下北京两次强度差异显著的降水过程进行 对比研究。结果表明:(1)台风影响北京降水年均0.33次,出现在6—9月。降水过程 多为大雨以上天气过程,持续时间一般2 d,最长可达5 d。(2)影响台风的活动范围大致为(20°—50°N,109°—128°E)。路径主要包括西北行和转向东北行两类,并以前者居多 。北京发生暴雨时,台风中心主要出现在江西—安徽一带、黄海或北京附近。(3)Freda对北京的影响发生在台风与西风槽相互作用过程中,而Matsa的影响表现为台风低压环流直接 控制北京。两个台风均受冷空气影响而变性,具有明显的非对称结构,两次过程中北京位于 台风不同的对流运动发展区域是造成降水强度差异的原因之一。(4)两次台风过程中北京 均具有较好的水汽条件和对流不稳定层结,但动力抬升条件差异明显。Freda影响下北京具 有较强的水平风垂直切变,偏南暖湿气流上升运动深厚。而Matsa影响下北京盛行偏北气流 ,中低层下沉运动显著,水汽抬升受到抑制。另外,北京西北高东南低的地形也是其台风降 水产生差异的原因之一。在台风东侧,地形作为偏南气流的迎风坡可加强上升运动,而在台 风西侧则作为偏北气流的背风坡增强下沉运动。
英文摘要:
      Based on “Typhoon Year Book” data, typhoon rainfall data from 1949 to 20 06, satellite TBB and NCEP reanalysis data, the climatic characteristics of Beij ing rainfall associated with typhoons were analyzed. Two typhoon cases with remarkable difference in rainfall rate over Beijing were compared and diagnosed . Statistical results show that a rainfall event associated with typhoon occurre d in Beijing about every three year during June to September averaged on 58 years. Those typhoons mainly occurred in the region of (20°-50°N, 109-128°E)and most of them moved northwestward while the others turn to the northeast. The typhoon rainfall in Beijing sustained 2 days in general and 5 days the longest duration is. The typhoon centers usually appeared in the areas of Jiangxi and An hui, Huanghai sea or near Beijing when rainstorms occurred over Beijing. Compari son study indicates that 2 day torrential rainfall event happened in Beijing un der the interaction between typhoon Freda (8407) and westerly trough, while only general rainfall occurred in Beijing though dominated by the low circulation of typhoon Masta (0509). It is found that both of Freda and Masta underwent extrat ropical transition process, which resulted in typhoon asymmetric structure with the heavy rainfall developing in the northern and eastern sides of typhoon center. That contributed to the distinct rainfall deference in Beijing, which located in different areas of the two typhoons. On the other hand, the lifting conditio ns for precipitation were different in spite of plenty water moisture and convec tive unstable in Beijing. The ascending motion of warm southerly was strong and deep under the strong wind vertical shear associated with typhoon Freda. However , the lifting of water vapor was restrained due to the descending motion of nort herly cold airflow under the impact of typhoon Matsa. Besides, the Beijing topog raphy also played an important role in the rainfall difference between the two t yphoons. The southerly (northerly) would be lifted (sunk) in typhoon eastern (western) part under the topographic effect of Beijing with mountainous area in its northwest and plain in its southeast.
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