熊安元,朱燕君 ,任芝花, 王 颖. 2006. 观测仪器和百叶箱的变化对地面气温观测值的影响 及其原因分析[J]. 气象学报, 64(3):377-384, doi:10.11676/qxxb2006.036
观测仪器和百叶箱的变化对地面气温观测值的影响 及其原因分析
DIFFERENCES OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS RECORDED BY DIFFERENT SENSORS IN DIFFERENT SCREENS AND ITS CAUSES
投稿时间:2005-10-10  修订日期:2005-11-30
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2006.036
中文关键词:  地面观测系统,自动气象站,百叶箱,气温,差异
英文关键词:Conventional surface observational system, Automatic weather station, Wooden screen, Glass fiber reinforced plastic screen, Temperature difference.
基金项目:国家科技部科技基础条件平台项目“气象科学数据共享试点”(2004DKA20170)
作者单位
熊安元 国家气象信息中心北京 100081 
朱燕君 国家气象信息中心北京 100081 
任芝花 国家气象信息中心北京 100081 
王 颖 国家气象信息中心北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      在未来的几年来,中国几十年以来一直使用的地面人工气象观测系统将全部被自动观测系统所取代,观测系统的变化(对气温观测而言,主要是感应器的变化和百叶箱的变化)导致气象要素观测值的系统偏差将是不可避免的。检测地面自动观测与人工观测的地面气温的差异,并分析产生这种差异的原因,对于分析我国气温时间序列的均一性,科学合理使用我国长期气候序列进行气候变化研究具有重要的科学意义,同时对于改进我国地面自动观测系统,减少观测值的系统误差,具有重要的业务应用价值。选取在同一观测场观测、具有同种防辐射百叶箱、不同感应仪器的人工和自动两种地面气温观测系统所获取的5个国家基准站的平行观测资料,分析了不同时间尺度(小时、日、月)的观测和统计值的差异,揭示了两种系统获得的气温测值的偏差,并分析了产生这种偏差的原因,近似估算了仪器精度、仪器灵敏度、太阳辐射和红外辐射等影响因子导致的偏差值。观测仪器的变化对气温测值有较明显的影响,日、月、年平均气温相差0.2左右,太阳辐射对不同仪器的影响不同是主要原因,同时,两种仪器存在0.1左右的系统观测误差,对环境温度变化的敏感性的差异也可引起一天中的不同时段存在0.1—0.15的差异。通过对3个台站不同百叶箱、相同仪器的对比观测试验资料的分析,表明从总体上看,百叶箱的变化对气温观测值的影响不大,但玻璃钢百叶箱内的气温对环境气温变化较木质百叶箱更灵敏。
英文摘要:
      In the next several years, the conventional manual surface observational systemused for the past several decades in China will be completely replaced by automatic weather stations (AWS). It is inevitable that there are systematic differences between observations recorded by different systems (including different sensors and different screens). In climatological viewpoint, it is very important to check the differences of temperature records obtained by the two observation systems and to find the causes responsible for the differences. This study was undertaken by using two kinds of comparative observations, one is the hourly parallel observation of temperature, cloud cover, and precipitation recorded by AWS (the Milos500) and manual observation from 2001 to 2003 to analyze the difference of temperatures due to the updating of instrument, and other is the parallel observation using traditional wooden screen and glass fiber reinforced plastic screen to analyze the influence of the updating of screen on temperature observations. Based on the parallel observation data obtained at the same meteorological platform by the AWS and manual observation systems (i.e. by different sensors in the same type screen) at 5 reference climatological stations in 2001-2003, the differences of hourly, daily and monthly temperature observations and temperature statistics were analyzed, and the causes of the differences are interpreted. We have quantitatively estimated the deviations resulted from the accuracy and sensitivity of the AWS and conventional observation instruments, and solar/infrared radiation. The updating of observation instrument evidently impacted the daily, monthly, and annually mean temperatures, leading to the temperature difference of about 0.2 ℃, and the effect of solar radiation on the two kind of observational instruments is the major reason. Besides, two instruments had a systematic error about 0.1 ℃, and difference in the sensitivity of the two instruments to the environmental temperature change also brought about a temperature difference of 0.1-0.15 ℃ in different time periods in a day. The analyses of the comparative observation data of temperatures recorded respectively in traditional wooden screen and glass fiber reinforced plastic screen at 3 stations indicate that impact of the updating of screen on temperature observations was minor, but the observed value of temperature in glass fiber reinforced plastic screen was more sensitive to changes in the environmental temperature.
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