马晓燕 ,石广玉 ,郭裕福 ,王喜红. 2005. 温室气体和硫酸盐气溶胶的辐射强迫作用[J]. 气象学报, 63(1):41-48, doi:10.11676/qxxb2005.005
温室气体和硫酸盐气溶胶的辐射强迫作用
RADIATIVE FORCING BY GREENHOUSE GASES AND SULFATE AEROSOL
投稿时间:2003-12-28  修订日期:2004-04-12
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2005.005
中文关键词:  海-陆-气耦合模式,温室气体,硫酸盐气溶胶,辐射强迫
英文关键词:GOALS4.0 ocean atmospheric coupled model  Greenhouse gases, Sulfate aerosol  Radiative forcing
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(49875012)
作者单位
马晓燕 中国科学院大气物理研究所 大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室 北京100029 
石广玉 中国科学院大气物理研究所 大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室 北京100029 
郭裕福 中国科学院大气物理研究所 大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室 北京100029 
王喜红 中国科学院大气物理研究所 大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室 北京100029 
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中文摘要:
      对GOALS4.0海-陆-气耦合模式的相关部分进行了改进,主要改进包括温室气体的扩充和硫酸盐气溶胶“显式”方案的引入,并引入20世纪温室气体的实际浓度变化以及硫循环模式模拟的硫酸盐气溶胶的三维全球浓度分布,模拟了温室气体和硫酸盐气溶胶造成的辐射强迫的空间分布和时间变化。全球平均的温室气体和硫酸盐气溶胶的辐射强迫分别为2.17 W/m2和-0.29 W/m2;温室气体造成的辐射强迫在空间上呈现明显的纬向结构,最大值(大于2.5 W/m2)和最小值(小于1 W/m2)分别位于副热带和两极地区,在北半球主要工业区硫酸盐气溶胶的辐射强迫绝对值接近温室气体的辐射强迫值(大于-2.0 W/m2)。
英文摘要:
      GOALS4.0 ocean-atmospheric coupled model developed by IAP/LASG, was firstly improved, including adding of new greenhouse gases and introducing of the explicit representation of sulfate aerosols. It was then employed to simulate radiative forcing induced by greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosol with 20th century real concentration of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosol from a sulfur cycle model as input The simulated global and annual mean radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosol is 2.17 W/m2 and -0.29 W/m2 respectively, which are within the range of estimates in the latest IPCC report. The forcing from greenhouse gases shows homogeneous spatial distribution, with the maximum of 2.5 W/m2 at the subtropical and the minimum of 1 W/m2 at the polar region, while the forcing by sulfate aerosol almost compete the forcing of greenhouse gases at the major industrial regions in the Northern hemisphere. The zonal nature of radiative forcing due to well mixed greenhouse gases is apparent. The forcing indicates a strong symmetrical structure in the two Hemispheres. Comparing to the forcing due to greenhouse gases, the forcing by sulfate aerosols shows significant regional distribution. Maxima in sulfate are associated with high sulfur emissions in North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Secondary maximum in the Southern Hemisphere should be due to biomass burning. Radiative forcing from either greenhouse gases or sulfate aerosols was very low before 1950s, while it increased very fast in the last decades. The forcing due to greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols was less than 0.6 W/m2 or -0.1 W/m2 in 1950, which increase to about 2.1 W/m2 and -0.5 W/m2 at the end of the 20th century. Considering only greenhouse gases the mean forcing from the two Hemispheres is almost as same as its global mean. By comparison, if the effects of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols are both included, the global mean forcing is between the averages of Northern and Southern Hemisphere, and the radiative forcing in the Northern Hemisphere is roughly 3 times as high as that of the Southern Hemisphere.
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