陆龙骅,卞林根,效存德,武炳义,逯昌贵. 2004. 近20年来中国极地大气科学研究进展[J]. 气象学报, 62(5):672-691, doi:10.11676/qxxb2004.065
近20年来中国极地大气科学研究进展
RECENT TWO DECADES PROGRESSES IN STUDY ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES OF THE POLAR REGIONS
投稿时间:2004-08-10  修订日期:2004-09-10
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2004.065
中文关键词:  北极  南极  大气科学  全球变化  气候系统  考察研究
英文关键词:Arctic  Antarctica  Atmospheric sciences  Global change  Climate system  Field investigation
基金项目:国家气象局气象科学基金“南极气象考察与研究”;国家自然科学基金;国家南极考察委员会“南极地区近地面边界层物理学的观测分析研究”(4880208)、“地球三极区域环境本底和地气交换对气候影响的考察研究”项目(49255002);“八五”国家科技攻关“中国
作者单位
陆龙骅 中国气象科学研究院 北京 100081 
卞林根 中国气象科学研究院 北京 100081 
效存德 中国气象科学研究院 北京 100081 
武炳义 中国气象科学研究院 北京 100081 
逯昌贵 中国气象科学研究院 北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      南极、北极和青藏高原是地球上的3大气候敏感地区,是多个国际计划研究全球变化的关键地区。中国的南极和北极实地考察研究,分别始于20世纪80和90年代,起步较晚,但近20余年来有较大的进展。极地大气科学考察与研究是极地科学研究的重要组成部分。讫今为止,中国已组织了20次南极考察和3次北极考察,建立了中国南极长城站、中山站和北极黄河站等3个常年科学考察站;进行了常规地面气象、Brewer大气臭氧、近地面物理、高层大气物理、冰雪和大气化学等观测,获得了较为系统的极地大气科学第一手资料;开展了有关极地与全球变化的研究,取得了新的进展。南极地区大气温度、臭氧和海冰的气候变化在时间和空间上都是多样的。南极地区的增暖主要发生在南极半岛地区,在南极大陆主体并不明显,近10余年来还有降温趋势。中国南极长城站和中山站的观测资料也证实了这一点。此外,还揭示了南极半岛西侧和罗斯海外围的海冰变化具有“翘翘板”特征,由此定义的南极涛动指数可用来讨论南极海冰状况和海冰关键区的活动;用实地考察资料研究了极地不同下垫面的近地面物理和海-冰-气相互作用特征,给出了边界层特征参数;讨论了极地天气气候和大气环境特征及其对东亚大气环流和中国天气气候的影响;利用冰川学、地球化学、地理和地质等方法, 重建了南印度洋历史海平面气压、南极 穿极指数和与极地温度有关的企鹅种群数量变化等气候代用资料序列, 开展了极地古气候环境的研究; 研究了南极中山站地区的大气臭氧变化特征及机理; 在极地大气化学、极光和电离层变化特征研究等方面也有了新的进展。在南北极地区, 进一步加强国际合作, 继续监测包括近地面温度在内的大气要素的变化, 拓展大气科学研究领域,积极获取气候代用资料, 仍是全球变化研究的重要内容之一。
英文摘要:
      The Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan Plateau regions are the most sensitive areas in the global climate change, and are also the key regions for the global change research. The field investigations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions started in China in the early 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Among the multi-discipline studies, atmospheric science investigations were the important aspects. Up to now, twenty national Antarctic research expeditions and three Arctic expeditions were carried out. Meteorological observations have been continuing at the two year-round stations (Great Wall and Zhongshan) in the Antarctica, and at one station (Yellow River) in the Arctic. These observations include routine ground meteorology, atmospheric ozone by the Brewer, near-surface atmospheric physics, upper-atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry and glacio-chemistry. Lots of data were collected and they are valuable for the research with respect of global change. It is concluded that air temperature, ozone and sea ice displayed various spatial and temporal changes. Antarctic Peninsular shows an obvious warming while no obvious trend happened over the East Antarctica, and even a slight cooling for the last decade. Meteorological observations at Great Wall Station and Zhongshan Station verified these trends. Based on EOF analysis of data on Antarctic seaice concent ration (SIC) for the period from 1968 to 1997, it was found two key regions of SIC change displaying a seesaw-form variations. One located in the outer belt of the Ross Sea and the other in Billinghusen Sea close to the Antarctic Peninsula. Sea ice changes, especially over the two key ocean areas, links to the Antarctic Oscillation. Observations of boundary layer parameters for the different underlying surfaces (lands, snow cover, sea ice, ocean surface and vegetation), and these parameters were used for the study of ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions.
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