陈世范. 1999. GPS气象观测应用的研究进展与展望[J]. 气象学报, 57(2):242-252, doi:10.11676/qxxb1999.023
GPS气象观测应用的研究进展与展望
ADVANCE AND PROSPECT ON RESEARCH OF GPS ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING AND ITS APPLICATION
投稿时间:1998-06-26  修订日期:1998-11-04
DOI:10.11676/qxxb1999.023
中文关键词:  全球定位系统  温度  水汽  
英文关键词:Global Position System  Temper ature  Vapour  Wind
基金项目:
作者单位
陈世范 中国气象科学研究院, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      GPS(Global Position System)是美国第二代卫星导航系统。它的出现带来了当今世界上军事、民用导航技术的全面革新,在许多科学研究领域得到了极为重要的应用。同样地,在气象科学研究和业务应用方面也展示了广阔的前景。地基和空基的GPS气象探测已被看成为支持21世纪WMO计划的一种新的全球综合高空观测系统。美国气象学会第78届年会有不少相关研究报告,集中反映了欧美GPS气象应用的开发研究最新进展,可概括为以下3方面:(1)由UCAR(University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)主持的GPS/气象学(GPS/MET)计划已经取得了成功。1995年4月3日发射了一颗低轨卫星(ML-1),利用低轨卫星对GPS卫星进行掩星观测,可以获得5~45km高度范围内高分辨率的温度廓线(误差1~2℃)以及在5km高度以下大气层的温度分布已知的条件下(精确到2℃),确定这一层中水汽压垂直分布。更具吸引力的应用是将大气折射率或射线偏转角这些基本物理量直接同化到高分辨率的全球或中尺度天气预报模式中去,以提高预报的准确性。只要发射8颗低轨卫星,总费用约1亿美元,便可以为天气业务预报?
英文摘要:
      Up-to-date, the remarkabl advances in a series of GPS/MET experimental programs to demonstrate potentiality and feasibility of GPS So unding of at mospheric temperature profiles, precipitable water and wind have been acquired in different countries. It has been shown that active limbsounding of at mosphere using Global position system (GPS) radio signal received in loweart horbit is able to offer the data sets of temperature profiles with the precision of 1-2℃ between 5-45 km, and to calculate the water vapor pressure from the measured ref ractivity if an temperature profile can be estimated independently. The measuring accuracy of at mospheric precipitable water (PW) from a GPS PW net work with high precision is better than 1-2 mm, and the observation is relatively unaffected by rain, cloud and aerosol. The advanced GPS windfinding system has also beent ested by a few of country, and when the radar windf inding was used as a reference the average deviation was about 0.5 m/s for GPS and 0.8 m/s for loranc. Finally, the prospects for the wide application of the GPS sounding of atmosphere to meteorological research and operations are given, in addition the strategy to develop the technology of GPS remo te sensing in China and to promote int ernational cooperation is also presented in this paper.
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