翟盘茂,任福民,张强. 1999. 中国降水极值变化趋势检测[J]. 气象学报, 57(2):208-216, doi:10.11676/qxxb1999.019
中国降水极值变化趋势检测
DETECTION OF TRENDS IN CHINA’S PRECIPITATION EXTREMES
投稿时间:1997-09-17  修订日期:1998-06-12
DOI:10.11676/qxxb1999.019
中文关键词:  中国降水  极值  变化趋势
英文关键词:China precipitation  Change of extremes  Trend
基金项目:
作者单位
翟盘茂 中国气象局国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
任福民 中国气象局国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
张强 中国气象局国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      利用中国296个分布均匀的测站的逐日降水资料,研究了中国过去45a中降水量、降水频率、降水强度等方面的极值变化趋势。结果表明,总体上讲,中国年降水量、1日和3日最大降水量以及不同级别的强降水总量没有发现明显的极端化倾向,但伴随着降水日数极端偏多的区域范围越来越小的变化趋势,平均降水强度极端偏高的区域范围表现为扩大的趋势。中国降水极值变化还反映出明显的区域性特点。在中国东部,平均降水强度极值出现的范围趋于扩大。如华北地区在年降水量明显趋于减少的同时,年降水量极端偏多的范围减少,1日和3日最大降水量、日降水≥50mm和100mm的暴雨日数极端偏多的情况也趋于减少,而平均降水强度极值显着增加。在年降水明显趋于增多的西北西部地区,降水日数的极值变化趋势不明显,但年降水量、1日和3日最大降水量以及日降水≥10mm的降水总量极端偏多的区域范围均反映出趋于增加的变化趋势。
英文摘要:
      On the basis of 296 st ations with com plete daily precipitation records during 1951-1995, this paper mainly studied extreme changes of precipitation amount, precipitation frequency, and precipitation intensity in China. The results revealed that there are no obvious trends in annual precipitation, 1-day and 3-day maximum precipitation, and precipitation amount for daily precipitation above different intensities. However, a significant increasing trend in extremely above normal meanint ensity of precipitation in China is accompanied with reduction of rain days. Regional difference is very evident in the trends of China's precipit ation extremes. In eastern China, much above normal mean intensity of precipitation tends to increase. In North China, under the backgr ound of decrease in annual precipitation to tals, decreasing trends are very obvious for 1-day and 3-day maximum precipitation, and for rain days with daily precipitation above 50 mm and 100 mm. However, annual mean intensity of precipitation still tends to increase in North China. Exception is in western North west China, where the annual precipitation amount displayed an increasing trend and the area coverage of extreme amount of high intensity precipitation displayed an increasing trend but it showed no significant trend for wetdays.
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