王启,丁一汇. 1997. 南海夏季风演变的气候学特征[J]. 气象学报, 55(4):466-483, doi:10.11676/qxxb1997.046
南海夏季风演变的气候学特征
CLIMATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EVOLUTION OF SUMMER MONSOON OVER THE NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA
投稿时间:1996-02-05  修订日期:1996-08-07
DOI:10.11676/qxxb1997.046
中文关键词:  南海夏季风  孟加拉湾夏季风  气侯学  突变
英文关键词:SCS summer monsoon  BOB summer monsoon  Climatology  Abrupt change.
基金项目:中日季风合作项目,国家“九五”重中之重项目“我国短期气候预测系统的研究96-908-04-03-4”共同资助
作者单位
王启 国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
丁一汇 国家气候中心, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      本文总结南海北部地区夏季风演变的气候学特征,发现南海地区5月第3候对流层高层东风和北风爆发,对流层低层西风第1次跃升,东亚经向季风环流圈开始形成,这可以成为南海地区夏季风爆发的标志.对流层低层西风在6月中旬开始的第2次连续跃升对应江淮地区的梅雨爆发期.类似地,中国大陆夏季对流层低层5月初和6月初有两次爆发性增暖过程,第2次比第1次强烈得多.南海北部地区对流层低层纬向风速、比湿盛夏呈双峰型,纬向风速峰值分别出现在6月第5候和8月第4候,比湿峰值分别出现在6月第6候和8月第5候.比湿突升对应纬向风速突升,但略落后于风速峰值出现的时间.南海北部地区季风爆发前,温度是波动式上升的,南海季风爆发后,温度是波动式下降的.中国大陆东部及南海地区夏季对流层低层比湿分布有3次突变,即4月中旬南海北部比湿突增,并开始出现高比湿中心,而南海南部为最大比湿中心;5月中旬最大比湿中心已从南海南部跳到了南海北部-华南并向江淮流域扩展;6月中旬江淮流域比湿突增并一直维持到8月,同时南海南部高比湿带消失.而5月中旬OLR有一次突变,OLR低值区爆发性向北扩张,这对应于南海地区夏季风的爆发.而孟加拉湾地区夏季风演变的气候学特征与南海地区有较大的区别,这表明南海地区和孟加拉湾地区是分属不同的季风系统.
英文摘要:
      Using pentad mean ECMWF and OLR data from April to September of seven year mean 1980-1986,some aspects of the climatology of the summer monsoon have been dealt over the South China Sea(SCS).Some interesting evidences were revealed.First,the onset of the northern SCS summer monsoon on the average is marked by the onset of the east erly and northerly at 200hPa,the abrupt enhancement of westerly at 850hPa,and the formation of the meridional monsoon circulation of the East Asia.A nother abrupt enhancement of the westerly corresponds to the onset of Meiyu in the Yangtze River valley.Two abrupt increases in the temperatures at 850hP aoccur over China continent during early May and early June.Second,at 850hPa,zonal wind and specific humidit y appear with tw o-peak-pattern,and the abrupt increases of the zonal wind correspond well to the increase of the specific humidity.Before the onset of the summer monsoon,the temperature increases wavily,but drops down wavily after the onset.Last,There exist three abrupt changes in distribution of specific humidity in East Asia separately during middle April with the high humid band appearing over the northern SCS,during middle May with high humid band suddenly jumping from the southern SCS to the northern SCS,and during the period from middle June to August,with the high humid band appearing over the Yangtze River valley and disappearing over the southern SCS.The monsoon evolution charact eristics over the northern Bay of Bengal(BOB) much differs from that of the northern SCS,so this means that the SCS and BOB to a certain degree belong to different monsoon system.
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