沈杭锋,方桃妮,蓝俊倩,翟国庆,苏涛. 2019. 一次强飑线过程极端大风的中尺度分析[J]. 气象学报, 77(5):806-822, doi:10.11676/qxxb2019.052
一次强飑线过程极端大风的中尺度分析
Mesoscale analysis of the extremely damaging gale in a severe squall line
投稿时间:2018-08-22  修订日期:2019-01-23
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2019.052
中文关键词:  极端大风  飑线  冷池  动量下传  地形
英文关键词:Extremely damaging gale  Squall line  Cold pool  Downward transport of momentum  Terrain
基金项目:浙江省科技厅重点项目(2017C03035)、浙江省气象局科技项目(2018YB13)。
作者单位
沈杭锋 杭州市气象局, 杭州, 310051 
方桃妮 金华市气象局, 金华, 321000 
蓝俊倩 衢州市气象局, 衢州, 324000 
翟国庆 浙江大学地球科学学院, 杭州, 310027 
苏涛 浙江省气象科学研究所, 杭州, 310017 
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中文摘要:
      利用常规气象观测资料、区域自动气象站加密观测资料和GFS 0.25°×0.25°逐6 h的分析场数据以及多普勒雷达、风廓线等资料,通过背景形势场分析、物理量诊断分析和中尺度分析,对2018年3月4日发生在华东地区的强飑线天气过程进行了诊断分析。结果表明,这次过程具有发生时间(季节)早、移速快、范围广、致灾强等特点,是一次比较少见的早春(冬末)十分强烈的飑线天气过程,是在高空急流辐散区、低空西南急流轴前端、低涡南侧的暖区中发展起来的。飑线过程的地面要素变化十分剧烈,地面有强冷池,与飑线前暖空气之间构成了强的水平温度梯度,致使飑线强度更强;飑线经过时气压涌升所形成的雷暴高压、强气压梯度以及飑线的快速移动均有利于地面极端大风的出现。飑线发展过程中观测到弓形回波、超级单体等强天气系统。中高层动量下传和光滑湖面、喇叭口、狭管效应等特殊地形对于大风的增强效应比较显著,这些因素也加剧了地面极端大风的形成。
英文摘要:
      A severe squall line event was studied based on conventional observation data, automatic weather station data, GFS analysis data at spatial resolution of 0.25° and temporal resolution of 6 h, and observations of Doppler radar and radar wind profiler in eastern China on 4 March 2018. The results demonstrate that it was a rare, severe squall line with features of untimely occurrence, fast moving, wide range and catastrophic damages during early spring (late winter). It originated and evolved in the divergent area of the upper air jet, in front of the low level southwesterly jet axis and in the warm area of a low level vortex. Meteorological elements varied fiercely during this process. The large horizontal temperature gradient formed by the surface cold pool and warm air ahead of the squall line enhanced the intensity of the system. The severe thunderstorm high, the strong pressure gradient and fast moving of the strong squall line resulted in extremely damaging gale, which was further intensified by the bow echo, the supercell, and downward transport of momentum. The effects of special terrain (such as the smooth lake and trumpet-shape topography) were also favorable for the formation of the gale.
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