徐祥德,赵天良,LuChungu,施晓晖. 2014. 青藏高原大气水分循环特征[J]. 气象学报, 72(6):1079-1095, doi:10.11676/qxxb2014.091
青藏高原大气水分循环特征
Characteristics of the water cycle in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2014-01-12  修订日期:2014-09-18
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2014.091
中文关键词:  青藏高原  水分循环  亚洲季风  水汽输送  全球变暖
英文关键词:Tibetan Plateau  Water cycle  Asian monsoon  Vapor transport  Global warming
基金项目:自然科学基金重点项目(41130960)、财政部公益性行业(气象)科研专项第三次青藏高原科学试验——边界层与对流层观测(GYHY201406001)、江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD).
作者单位
徐祥德 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
赵天良 南京信息工程大学中国气象局气溶胶-云-降水重点实验室, 南京, 210044 
LuChungu National Science Foundation, VA 22230, USA 
施晓晖 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室, 北京, 100081 
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中文摘要:
      青藏高原对亚洲季风环流的形成有重要作用,同时作为"世界屋脊"拥有丰富的冰川、积雪、河流、湖泊和地下蓄水层.青藏高原特殊大地形动力和热力作用深刻地影响着亚洲与全球大气水分循环,也对全球气候与环境产生深远的影响.基于青藏高原在亚洲夏季风系统大气水分循环过程的重要地位,从青藏高原对全球大气水分循环重要作用的视角,综述了青藏高原大气水分循环过程中青藏高原局地热力对流、高原的"阶梯式"水汽流爬升"第二类条件不稳定(CISK)"物理模型、青藏高原视热源结构影响及多尺度水汽汇流通道、海洋-青藏高原"水汽源-汇"结构、青藏高原跨半球垂直环流圈水分循环结构、青藏高原大气水分循环综合模型等的相关研究进展,剖析了青藏高原大气水分循环综合模型的研究背景,探讨了青藏高原特殊大地形热力驱动机制及其云水效应,描述出与青藏高原热力驱动的亚洲区域和跨半球垂直环流圈水分循环结构,揭示了青藏高原热力强迫与海洋-大气-陆地水文过程特殊的相互反馈作用.青藏高原发源的亚洲河流水系是为人口众多的亚洲区域供给生活、农业和工业用水的重要水资源之一.因此,认识在全球变暖背景下青藏高原的水分循环及其对水资源变化影响至关重要,仍需深入地探讨青藏高原大气水分循环机制及其全球影响效应.
英文摘要:
      The Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in the development of Asian monsoon circulations. The Tibetan Plateau itself contains the richest water resources in the forms of snowpacks, glaciers, lakes, rivers, and aquifers. The mechanical and thermal forcing of the unique Tibetan Plateau-topography provides a profound impact on Asian and global water cycles as well as climate and environment changes. In view of the specially important role of the Tibetan Plateau in building Asian summer monsoon system, regional and global water cycles, the advances in study of the atmospheric water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau are reviewed with the emphases on the respects of (1) the local convection in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau, (2) the mechanism of the two-ladder "CISK" in the vapor uplift to the Tibetan Plateau, (3) the structures of apparent heat source over the Tibetan Plateau with the multi-scale vapor busway, (4) the patterns of source-receptor of vapor from oceans to the plateau, (5) the cross-hemispheric water cycle in the vertical atmospheric circulation and (6) a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau. In the recent research, a comprehensive pattern of the atmospheric water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau is revealed; the mechanism on the thermal forcing of large Tibetan Plateau-topography and its effect on cloud-precipitation are investigated; the Asian regional and cross-hemispheric vapor transport structures in the vertical atmospheric circulation driven by the Tibetan Plateau forcing are characterized; and the feedback interaction between the Tibetan Plateau`s thermal forcing and the hydrological process of ocean-atmosphere-land is explored. The Asian rivers originating from the Tibetan Plateau have been sustaining the life, agricultural and industrial water usage for the Asian regions with a large population, and therefore, it is vital to understand the atmospheric water cycle and its impact on the changes in the Tibetan Plateau water resource under background of the global warming. The atmospheric water cycle process over the TP with the global effect is needed to further studied.
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