郑菲,李建平,刘婷. 2014. 南半球环状模气候影响的若干研究进展[J]. 气象学报, 72(5):926-939, doi:10.11676/qxxb2014.074
南半球环状模气候影响的若干研究进展
Some advances in studies of the climatic impacts of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode
投稿时间:2014-04-02  修订日期:2014-06-27
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2014.074
中文关键词:  南半球环状模  季风  气候影响  气候变化  南北半球相互作用
英文关键词:Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM)  Monsoon  Climatic impact  Climate change  Interaction between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
基金项目:国家973计划项目(2013CB430200)、国家自然科学基金项目(41030961)、公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306031)。
作者单位E-mail
郑菲 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室, 北京, 100029  
李建平 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室, 北京, 100029;北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院, 北京, 100875 ljp@lasg.iap.ac.cn 
刘婷 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室, 北京, 100029;中国科学院大学, 北京, 100049  
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中文摘要:
      南半球环状模是南半球热带外地区环流变率的主导模态。由于南半球环状模在空间上的大尺度特征,全球多个地区的气候均与南半球环状模的变化有关。探讨南半球环状模的气候影响,是近几十年来得到广泛关注并迅速发展的新方向。围绕这个方向,分别回顾了南半球环状模对南半球和北半球气候影响的研究进展,重点阐述了南半球环状模对中国气候影响的相关工作,并从长期变化尺度上,列举了南半球环状模与气候变化方面的研究成果。纵观近几十年的研究发现,针对南半球环状模对南半球的气候影响,目前已有比较系统的认识。总体而言,在年际尺度上,南半球环状模可以通过影响垂直环流和风暴轴的位置,改变表面风速对下垫面的热力和动力驱动作用,进而对南半球的海-气-冰耦合系统产生调控。这种调控多表现出纬向对称性,同时也存在纬向非对称的局地特征。在气候变化的尺度上,南半球环状模是过去半个世纪里南半球气候变化的主要驱动力之一。关于南半球环状模对北半球尤其是中国气候的影响问题,目前也取得了许多有意义的结果。例如,南半球环状模对东亚、西非、北美的夏季风和东亚冬季风均有作用,并且可以调控中国春季华南降水等。海-气耦合过程在南半球环状模对北半球气候的影响中扮演着重要角色,与南半球环状模信号的跨季节存储和由南半球向北半球的传播均有密切关系。但是,与南半球相比,南半球环状模对北半球气候影响的研究,还有许多问题值得深入讨论和研究:一是体现在对南半球环状模信号向北传播机制上的深入认识,二是将南半球环状模的信号作为因子在季节气候预测中的实践。
英文摘要:
      The Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation in the SH extratropics. The SAM regulates climate in many regions due to its large spatial scale. Exploration of the climatic impacts of the SAM is a new research field that has developed rapidly in recent years. This paper reviews studies of the climatic impact of the SAM on the SH and the Northern Hemisphere (NH), emphasizing linkages between the SAM and climate in China. Studies relating the SAM to climate change are also discussed. A general survey of these studies shows that signals of the SAM in the SH climate have been systematically investigated. On interannual scales, the SAM can influence the position of storm tracks and the vertical circulation, and modulate the dynamic and thermodynamic driving effects of the surface wind on the underlying surface, thus influencing the SH air-sea-ice coupled system. These influences generally show zonally symmetrical characteristics, but with local features. On climate change scales, the impacts of the SAM on SH climate change show a similar spatial distribution to those on interannual scales. There are also meaningful results on the relationship between the SAM and the NH climate. The SAM is known to affect the East Asian, West African, and North American summer monsoons, as well as the winter monsoon in China. Air-sea interaction plays an important role in these connections in terms of the storage of the SAM signal and its propagation from the SH to the NH. However, compared with the considerable knowledge of the impact of the SAM on the SH climate, the response of the NH climate to the SAM deserves further study, including both a deep understanding of the propagation mechanism of the SAM signal from the SH to the NH and the establishment of a seasonal prediction model based on the SAM.
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